APUSH Ch. 11-13
Terms in this set (129)
The Embargo Act of 1807 was a law passed by Congress forbidding all exportation of goods from the United States. Britain and France had been continuously harassing the U.S. and seizing U.S. ship's and men. The U.S. was not prepared to fight in a war, so Pres. Jefferson hoped to weaken Britain and France by stopping trade. The Embargo Act ended up hurting our economy more than theirs. It was repealed in 1809. The Embargo Act helped to revive the Federalists. It caused New England's industry to grow. It eventually led to the War of 1812.
In 1803 Thomas Jefferson purchased 828,000 square miles of land for 15 million dollars from Napoleon the leader of France. The land mass stretched from the Gulf of Mexico all the to Rocky Mountains and Canada. The purchase of this land sprouted national pride and ensured expansion.
Formally reopened trade with all nations except England and France on March 1, 1809. A replacement of the Embargo Act. Made by the Republican Congress in an attempt to make England and France stop harassing the American ships and recognize the neutrality of America.
Midnight Judges a nick name given to group of judges that was appointed by John Adams the night before he left office. He appointed them to go to the federal courts to have a long term federalist influence, because judges serve for life instead of limited terms
The Judiciary Act of 1801
The Judiciary Act of 1801 was passed by the Federalist congress where the old capital was located. It was one of the last laws passed by the federalist congress. This law allowed the president, then President Adams, would stay up until midnight signing in new federal judges across the nation. It allowed the Federalists to still maintain power in the nation after they were a minority party in congress. This act brought bitterness between the two parties. These judges that were passed during the last day of President Adams were called "midnight Judges".
Orders in Council
The Orders in Council was a law passed by the English Parliament in 1793. It was when the British were fighting the French. The British closed off all port vessels that France went through so they couldn't get supplies. American ships were seized also and Americans were impressed into the British navy. This lead to the War of 1812.
The Chesapeake Incident
An incident that happened on June 22, 1807. The Chesapeake, a US frigate, was boarded by a British ship, the Leopard. The Chesapeake was not fully armed. The British seized four alleged deserters (the commander of the Chesapeake was later court marshaled for not taking any action). This is the most famous example of impressment, in which the British seized American sailors and forced them to serve on British ships. Impressment was one of the major factors leading to the War of 1812.
Marbury V. Madison
Sec. of State James Madison held up one of John Adams' "Midnight Judges" appointments. The appointment was for a Justice of the Peace position for William Marbury. Marbury sued. Fellow Hamiltonian and Chief Justice John Marshall dismissed Marbury's suit, avoiding a political showdown and magnifying the power of the Court. This case cleared up controversy over who had final say in interpreting the Constitution: the states did not, the Supreme Court did. This is judicial review.
Lewis of the Lewis and Clark Expedition. The expedition was one of the main explorations of the West. The area explored was: The Missouri River through the Rockie Mountains.
like the "spoils system." When an elected official fills appointed positions with friends that helped him/her get elected, it is considered patronage. Thomas Jefferson did not change many of the appointed positions in the government when he was elected in 1801.
Until 1803, the case of Marbury vs. Madison took place this year, there was controversy over who had the final say in determining the meaning of the Constitution, whether loose or strict interpretation should be used and who would decide. Jefferson tried to give the rights to the states in the Kentucky resolutions, but his cousin, John Marshall of the Supreme Court, proposed "judicial review," which gave the Supreme Court the power to decide if a law is or is not constitutional. "Judicial review" was accepted as a result of the famous case of Marbury vs. Madison
to accuse a public official of misconduct in office. The Jeffersonians were angry about a ruling made by Chief Justice John Marshall. The House of Representatives attempted to impeach the unpopular Supreme Court Justice, Samuel Chase. Although there were enough votes in the House of Representatives, the Senate did not have enough. Since this attempt in 1804, there has been no serious attempt to impeach members of the Supreme Court.
the forcible enlistment of soldiers. This was a rude form of conscription that the British have employed for over four hundred years. At this time the London authorities claimed the right to impress only British subjects on their own soil, harbor, or merchant ships. However, many Americans were mistaken for Englishmen and between 1808 and 1811 alone some six thousand United States citizens were impressed by the "piratical man-stealers" of England. This was one of the major causes of the war of 1812.
The English navy stole American sailors from 1806 until 1811 angering Jefferson and the country. Jefferson, however, did not wish to engage in war with England because of the countries weak navy and army. So he came up with the idea of using economic coercion to force Britain to come to Jefferson, and agree to his terms. He came up with the Embargo Act which cut off all trade with England and everyone else. Jefferson hoped this would force the English to come to his terms and stop stealing American sailors. This, however, did not work and greatly hurt American trade.
Revolution of 1800
Jefferson's view of his election to presidency. Jefferson claimed that the election of 1800 represented a return to what he considered the original spirit of the Revolution. Jefferson's goals for his revolution were to restore the republican experiment, check the growth of government power, and to halt the decay of virtue that had set in under Federalist rule.
instigated by the pasha of Tripoli who was disatisfied with his share of protection money; Jefferson reluctantly rose to the challenge and sent the U.S. Marine Corps to fight; after four years, Jefferson extorted a peace treaty with a bargain price of $60,000 which was used as ransom payments for captured Americans
Corps of Discovery
Official name of the Lewis and Clark Expedition members
Macon's Bill No. 2
1810 - Forbade trade with Britain and France, but offered to resume trade with whichever nation lifted its neutral trading restrictions first. France quickly changed its policies against neutral vessels, so the U.S. resumed trade with France, but not Britain.
Southerners and Westerners who were eager for war with Britain. They had a strong sense of nationalism, and they wanted to take over British land in North America and expand.
Battle of Tippecanoe
Battle between Americans and Native Americans. Tecumseh and the Prophet attempted to oppress white settlement in the West, but defeated by William Henry Harrison. Led to talk of Canadian invasion and served as a cause to the War of 1812.
a slave owned by Thomas Jefferson, who, according to some, was the mother of some of Thomas Jefferson's children
French general who became emperor of the French (1769-1821)
When Lewis & Clark were staying with the Mandans, an Indian woman was there as well. She belonged to the Shoshone people who lived in the Rockies. She and her French Canadian husband agreed to accompany Lewis and Clark as translators.
The corrupt military governor of Louisiana Territory; made an allegiance with Burr to separate the western part of the United States from the East and expand their new confederacy with invasions of Spanish-controlled Mexico and Florida.
The fourth President of the United States (1809-1817). A member of the Continental Congress (1780-1783) and the Constitutional Convention (1787), he strongly supported ratification of the Constitution and was a contributor to The Federalist Papers (1787-1788), which argued the effectiveness of the proposed constitution. His presidency was marked by the War of 1812.
A Shawnee chief who, along with his brother, Tenskwatawa, a religious leader known as The Prophet, worked to unite the Northwestern Indian tribes. The league of tribes was defeated by an American army led by William Henry Harrison at the Battle of Tippecanoe in 1811. Tecumseh was killed fighting for the British during the War of 1812 at the Battle of the Thames in 1813.
religious and political leader of the Shawnee tribe, known as The Prophet or the Shawnee Prophet; the brother of Tecumseh; reform program was to reject white culture and embrace the old ways
Samuel Chase was a strong supporter of the American Revolution, a signer of the Declaration of Independence, an ardent Federalist, and the only Supreme Court Justice ever to be impeached. A lawyer by profession, in 1796 he was appointed to the U.S. Supreme Court by president Washington. This was after he served as Chief Justice of the General Court of Maryland in 1791. In 1804, for alleged prejudice against the Jeffersonians in treason and sedition trials.
Appointed by John Adams (1801) as Chief Justice of the Supreme Court- was a Virginia Federalist who was disliked by the state's rights Jeffersonians. (Served 30 days under Federalist administration and 34 years under the Jeffersonians and their successors) The Federalists died out but Marshall continued to hand down Federalist decisions. IMPORTANT ACT- Although he dismissed the Marbury suit ( 1801) to avoid direct political showdown, he said that part of the Judiciary Act of 1789, on which Marbury tried to base his appeal was unconstitutional.
Burr was a running mate with Thomas Jefferson. They tied for the presidency. Jefferson won the run off. Burr goes back on his word and Hamilton convinces house to vote for Jefferson instead. Burr killed Alexander Hamilton in a famous duel. He was tried and acquitted for treason involving a plan to separate the US and combine with Spain.
William Marbury (1801)
President Adams named him a justice of the peace for the District of Columbia. Marbury sued James Madison when he learned his appointment would never take place. (Marbury vs. Madison)
Toussaint L' Overture
L' Overture skillfully led a group of angry ex-slaves against French troops in Santo Domingo. The French were unable to reconquer this valuable island and hence, had no use for Louisiana to serve as a granary for Santo Domingo. The inability of the French to regain possession of the island caused Napoleon to cede the Louisiana territory to the United States for 15 million dollars. Thus, Toussaint L' Overture's military vigor indirectly provoked Napoleon's decision to sell Louisiana to the Americans.
James Monroe was sent to Paris in 1803 to buy New Orleans and as much land as possible to the east for a maximum of ten million dollars. Monroe and Robert Livingston arranged the of all of Louisiana for fifteen million dollars. Monroe later became James Madison's Secretary of State.
Explorer along with Merriwether Lewis sent out to explore the recently purchased Louisiana Territory. He served as the artist and cartographer. Their exploring lasted from 1804-1806. They traveled up the Missouri River, through the Rockies, and to the mouth of the Columbia River. This exploration bolstered America's claim to western lands as well as opening the west to Indian trade and further exploration. p. 188
Albert Gallatin was the secretary of the treasury under Thomas Jefferson. He was called the "Watchdog of the Treasury," and proved to be as able as Alexander Hamilton. He agreed with Jefferson that a national debt was a bane rather than a blessing. Using strict controls of the economy, he succeeded in reducing the debt, and he balanced the budget.
Robert Livingston bought New Orleans and all the French territory west of the Mississippi River from Napoleon for 15 million dollars. He was only supposed to negotiate for a small part of New Orleans for 10 million so Jefferson was upset when he heard about Livingston's deal.
Zebulon M. Pike
A pioneer who explored the Louisiana territory between 1805 - 1807. He explored Colorado, New Mexico, & Mississippi. He was a leader of the new land. He has set up the portal to allow people to migrate toward west. (A paragon - First example to move into the Louisiana territory) P.188
Thomas Jefferson was a Republican who believed that the future of the U.S. would lie in the hands of farmers. "Long Tom" Jefferson was inaugurated to the presidency in the swampy village of Washington on March 4, 1801. While Jefferson was president, the Louisiana Purchase was made, Lewis and Clark were sent to explore the newly acquired land, the Barbary Pirate threat was silenced, and the Embargo Act was passed. While all of Jefferson's presidential acts were not always successful, he always put the country ahead of himself. His patriotism and loyalty to the U.S.
Bonus Bill of 1817
Securing funding for roads and canals was hard. This bill was passed by Congress to give states $1.5 million for internal improvements, but it was immediately vetoed by Pres. Madison. In his opinion, he believed states should pay for their own improvements.
Fletcher v. Peck
Fletcher v. Peck was a court case from 1810. The Georgia legislature, swayed by a bribe, gave 35 million acres of Mississippi land to private speculators. The next legislature cancelled the original ruling. Then the Supreme Court decided the grant was a contract and state law cannot impair contracts. This is one of the first court cases to illustrate the power of the Supreme Court to invalidate state laws conflicting with the federal Constitution. Their decision protected the peoples' rights against popular pressures.
Era of Good Feelings
the years of Monroe's presidency, during 1817-1825 people had good feelings caused by the nationalistic pride after the Battle of New Orleans and second war for Independence with British, only one political party was present, on the surface everything looked fine, but underneath it all everything was troubled, conflict over slavery was appearing and sectionalism was inevitable, Missouri Compromise had a very dampening effect on those good feelings
Treaty of 1818
A negotiated treaty between the Monroe administration and England. This treaty came after the War of 1812 to settle disputes between Britain and U.S. It permitted Americans to share Newfoundland fisheries w/ the Canadians, and fixed the vague northern limits of Louisiana from the Lake of the Woods to the Rocky Mountains. It also provided for a 10-year joint occupation of untamed Oregon country. Surprisingly, neither Britain or America had to surrender rights or claims for this to occur.
Land Act of 1820
The Land Act of 1820 was an act replacing the Land Act of 1800. It was a result of the depression, bank failures, bankruptcies, soup kitchens, unemployment, etc. of 1819. The original Land Act allowed Americans to buy 160 acres of land (minimum) at $2.00 an acre over a period of four years. The Land Act of 1820 offered less acreage, but it also cost less. It allowed Americans to buy 80 acres at $1.25 an acre. This helped to calm the westerners when they demanded cheaper land.
What: an expression of the post-1812 nationalism energizing the U.S. Proved to be the most famous of the long-lived offspring of that nationalism. Might have been called the Self-Defense Doctrine. Where & When: Incorporated into President Monroe's annual message to Congress in 1823. Its two basic features were:(1) Non-Colonization (2) Non-Intervention. Colonization's era had ended and England and other foreign powers needed to keep their monarchial systems out of the U.S. Old World powers could not gain anymore settlements. The U.S.
Trial during chief Justice John Marchalls reign; involving the state of Maryland& their right to tax the federal bank--sets precedent for the "loose clause"--increased power of Fed, government.
Tariff of 1816
caused by British cutting prices below cost in an effort to strangle the American war-baby factories in the cradle. Americans saw British seeking to crush Yankee factories. Nationalist Congress passed the Tariff(1816)- created taxes on imports to protect nation, while at the same time promote welfare. It was the first tariff in American history with aims that were primarily protective to merchants. It was bold beginning to adequate safeguards. A strong protective trend was started that stimulated the appetites of the protected for more protection.
Cohen's v Virginia
The Cohen's were a Virginia family accused of selling lottery tickets illegally. The Virginia Supreme Court found the Cohen's guilty, so they appealed to the Supreme Court in 1821. Virginia won in having the Cohen's convicted. Virginia lost in that Judge Marshal made it so that the federal Supreme Court had the right to review any decision involving powers of the federal government. This was a major blow on states' rights.
The American System
A plan proposed by Henry Clay, in 1824, to work on economic reform. Henry Clay wanted to help stabilize the country and begin the pursuit for worked recognition. The plan called for a protective tariff to be put in place for the manufacturers, a new Federal Bank to be put in place, and to begin work on many internal improvements.
Gibbons v Ogden
This case involved New York trying to grant a monopoly on waterborne trade between New York and New Jersey. Judge Marshal, of the Supreme Court, sternly reminded the state of New York that the Constitution gives Congress alone the control of interstate commerce. Marshal's decision, in 1824, was a major blow on states' rights.
Henry Clay developed a plan for profitable home markets called the American System in 1824. It enforced a protective tariff to get funding for transportation improvements. These improvements would be the construction of better roads and canals. This would allow industrialization to prosper since the raw materials of the South and West could easily and inexpensively get to the North and East to be manufactured. The manufactured goods could then be shipped back out to the South and West.
Nonintervention was one of the two features located in the Monroe Doctrine. Monroe declared a new policy on foreign intervention. The policy declared that the United States would not become involved in European affairs. Europe would stay out of the Western Hemisphere 1823 as well.
The last four of the Presidents from Virginia. (Washington, Jefferson, Madison, Monroe) The people wondered if all of the presidents were going to be from Virginia. This "dynasty" ended in 1824.
Isolationism deals with the Americans trying to separate themselves from foreign affairs. Isolationism takes place on North America and the oceans around it. Washington tries to separate the Americans from all British and foreign continents. Washington displays this in 1793 by the Proclamation of Neutrality and Washington' s Farewell Address in 1796.
2nd Bank of the United States
It was a federal establishment operated by the gov't as an attempt to save the welfare of the economy after the War of 1812. It was part of Henry Clay's American System and forced state banks to call in their loans which led to foreclosures and the Panic of 1819.
British foreign secretary circa 1823 He wanted America to join Britain in a declaration - wanted the protection of the Latin America states. Keep other European countries out of the western Hemisphere. John Adams thought it was best the U.S. make the declaration. It became the Monroe Doctrine.
Nationalism is a popular sentiment that places the existence and well being of the nation highest in the scale of political loyalties. It's significance lies in it's role of supplying the ties that bond the nation. An important and impressive result of post Revolutionary and 1812 wars, it was growing rapidly and began to cause a national unity the United States had not seen until this point. Citizens began calling themselves Americans over citizens of their states. Nationalism helped further stabilize our newly formed nation on all accounts, including financially.
Another term for slavery; The owning of human beings existed in a country that practiced liberty.
It was a tariff imposing 8% on the value of dutiable imports. It was passed by the first Congress. Revenue was the main goal. It was also designed to protect small industries just getting started. Hamilton wanted more protection for the well-to-do manufacturing groups. Congress still had agriculture and commercial interest dominating. This was part of Hamilton's economic plan to support the industrialists.
Noncolonization is part of the Monroe Doctrine that was written in 1823. Noncolonization said that America was closed to anymore colonization. A colonization attempt by anyone would be deemed a threat to the United States. It was created by the U.S. to protect the Western Hemisphere.
War of 1812
Fought between Britain & the United States largely over the issues of trade & impressment. Though the war ended in a relative draw, it demonstrated America's willingness to defend its interest militarily, earning the young nation newfound respect from European powers.
Battle of New Orleans
Resounding victory of American forces against the British, restoring American confidence & fueling an outpouring of nationalism. Final battle of the War of 1812.
Congress of Vienna
Convention of major European powers to redraw the boundaries of Continental Europe after the defeat of Napoleonic France
Signed by Britain & the United States, it established strict limits on naval armaments in the Great Lakes, a first step in the full demilitarization of the U.S.-Canadian border, completed in the 1870s.
Panic of 1819
Severe financial crisis brought on primarily by the efforts of the Bank of the United States to curb overspeculation on western lands. It disproportionately affected the poorer classes, especially in the West, sowing the seeds of Jacksonian Democracy.
Failed proposal to prohibit the importation of slaves into Missouri territory & pave the way for gradual emancipation. Southerners vehemently opposed the amendment which the perceived as a threat to the sectional balance between North & South.
Allowed Missouri to enter as a slave state but preserved the balance between North & South by carving free-soil Maine out of Massachusetts & prohibiting slavery from territories acquired in the Louisiana Purchase, north of the line of 36° 30'.
Dartmouth College vs. Woodward
Supreme Court case that sustained Dartmouth University's original charter against charges proposed by the New Hampshire state legislature, thereby protecting corporations from domination by state governments.
Signed by the British & the United States, the pact allowed New England fisherman access to Newfoundland fisheries, established the northern border of the Louisiana territory & provided for the joint occupation of the Oregon Country for ten years.
Florida purchase Treaty (Adams-Onis Treaty)
Under the agreement, Spain ceded Florida to the United States, which, in exchange, abandoned its claims to Texas.
Fixed the line of 54° 40' as the southernmost boundary of Russian holdings in North America
British naval general who gained early victories in the War of 1812
Commander of an American fleet who won a huge battle at Plattsburgh in the War of 1812
a Political Scientist during the 1820's. He was also a Congressman from Kentucky. He developed the American System which US adopted after the War of 1812. The American System created a protective tariff to American Markets. It also used the tariff to build road and canal for better transportation. (The American System started a cycle to trading for US market)
John C. Calhoun
part of the New Southern Congress of 1811. He was a representative for South Carolina and one of the original War Hawks. Calhoun supported the Tariff Bill of 1811 because he thought the bill would lead to manufacturing in the south and cultivation of cotton. He later changed his mind, though, and opposed it because the bill was being used to enrich Northern manufacturers.
John Quincey Adams
was in power 1810-1825; he forcibly informed Spain of their violation of the Appoint-American Treaty of 1795. This led to the ceding of Florida to the U.S. He was also responsible for keeping the U.S. from signing the Canning Proposal, which would have hindered American expansion. He then drafted the Monroe Doctrine which established the U.S. as the protector of the Western Hemisphere.
Daniel Webster "Black Dan"
was a war hawk in Congress in 1816 and was a strong spokesman for New England. He opposed the Tariff of 1816, because it was not in the interest of the shippers that were the majority and that he represented, but was in the interest of manufacturers.
was the hero of the Battle of New Orleans. In the eyes of many people he helped end the War of 1812. He also was a well known Indian fighter. He took military control of Spanish Fla. this encouraged the treaty with Spain 1819.
In 1814 a regional secret convention was held in Hartford, Connecticut due to the Federalist discontent because of the lessened voting weight of New England in Congress and Electoral College due to adding states to the Union and also they were not happy with the War of 1812. during war, smuggled things to continue trade which made them traitors. They were meeting to discuss their minority status in the Union and some Federalist even suggested secession. These Federalists were seen as traitors by the public. Led to the downfall of their party. they met to secure assistance from Washington, due to the blockading British squadrons on the shores of New England.
Washington Irving 1783-1859
first American to win international recognition as an author, example of the post war nationalism from the revolution and war of 1812
Andrew Jackson the seventh president of the United States was born on March 15, 1767 in New Lancaster County, South Carolina. He became a general in 1812 and was the leader in the Battle of New Orleans. Two weeks after he had won the battle, the diplomats that returned from Britain came back with a treaty, thus the Americans had believed that the British had once again surrendered and a new era of nationalism came. As president he introduced the spoils system.
William H. Harrison
General-Indian fighter-president--hero of Battle of Tippecanoe and Battle of the Thames in the War of 1812--major asset to America by keeping Indians at bay, redcoats from massacre's, and gaining/clearing land in West
The author of the Constitution and the Bill of Rights, Madison was also the father of the Federalist party and the fourth President of the United States. He was President during the war of 1812 and was also Vice-President under Jefferson. He was a great statesman but was not a strong president.
Oliver Hazard Perry
American naval officer; managed a fleet on the shores of Lake Erie in 1813; captured a British fleet on Lake Erie, his victory slogan "We have met the enemy and they are ours" brought new life and inspiration to the American troops, he was a hero during the war.(pg.202).
Eaton, Secretary of War, married the daughter of a Washington boardinghouse keeper, Peggy O'Neal. She had rumors spread about her and the male boarders. She was snubbed by ladies in Jackson's family and Vice President Calhoun's wife. The President wanted to help her because his wife had been the object of many rumors. He tried to force the social acceptance of Peggy. This was called the "Petticoat War." The Eaton scandal played into the hands of Secretary of State Van Buren. He paid attention to Mrs. Eaton so he could get on Jackson's good side.
South Carolina Exposition
A pamphlet published by the South Carolina legislature, written by John C. Calhoun. It spoke against the "Tariff of Abominations," and proposed nullification of the tariff. Calhoun wished to use nullification to prevent secession, yet address the grievances of sectionalist Southerners. These sectionalist ideas helped lead to the Civil War.
Maysville road was a road built within Kentucky and was considered an individual state road, but was connected to an interstate. Andrew Jackson withheld funds from localized roads and vetoed a bill for improving the Maysville road. This was a great setback for the internal improvements of the American society.
Amendment to the Constitution; Election of 1824, 1825; allowed the House of Representatives to elect John Q. Adams as President because Andrew Jackson received the most votes but did not get a majority of the votes; angered Jackson and his followers. p.235
Nickname for all the new participants in government that came with Jackson's presidency. This nickname was negative and proposed that Jackson believed in too much democracy, perhaps leading to anarchy.
Immediately after John Quincy Adams became President, he appointed Henry Clay as Secretary of State. Jacksonians were furious because all former Secretaries of State became Presidents. This "corrupt bargain" occurred after the Election of 1824 when Andrew Jackson had the most electoral votes, but not majority. Then, Henry Clay (having the least of the electoral votes) gave them to John Q. Adams, giving him the majority and making him President. Jacksonians question whether John Q. Adams made Henry Clay Sec. of State for payback in giving his votes.
President Jackson had an official cabinet, but its members were used more as executive clerks than anything else. Jackson had a private cabinet of about thirteen members that were always changing. The cabinet grew out of Jackson's unofficial meetings and was known as "the Kitchen Cabinet." Jackson's adversaries and enemies gave the group of advisors this name.
Tariff of Abominations
1) An extremely high tariff that Jacksonian Democrats tried to get Adams to veto. 2) 1828- Around Presidential elections 3)Jackson was elected as President.
Revolution of 1828
What: Election of 1828 - running candidates for president were John Q. Adams and Andrew Jackson. When: 1828 Why: The election of 1828 is often called the "Revolution of 1828." There was an increased turnout of voters at this election. The large turnout proved that the common people now had the vote and the will to use it for their ends. The results of the election show that the political center of gravity was shifting away from the conservative seaboard East toward the emerging states across the mountains. The revolution was peaceful, achieved by ballots.
a system that Andrew Jackson set up not long after his election into the presidency in 1828; it had already developed a strong hold in the industrial states such as New York and Pennsylvania; it gave the public offices to the political supporters of the campaign; the name came from Senator Marcy's remark in 1832, "to the victor belongs the spoils of the enemy; made politics a full time business.
Rotation in Office
supported by the New Democracy; like the spoils system but used by Jackson, same as patronage-based on favors for those who helped another get into office; Jackson felt it made the government more democratic by having more participation, etc.
In 1824, voters were crying that the people must be heard and down with King Caucus. This new and more democratic method of nominating presidential candidates was the have a national nominating convention. A caucus are the leaders of a small political organization.
Once shortened to "Republicans", when Andrew Jackson came into power he renamed the party "Democrats". The Jacksonian Democrats were very democratic and were opposed to the Whigs. Jackson was a real common man and believed in the common man. Opposed to very strong national bank. When he was president the Whigs called him "King Jackson". This party is the present day Democratic party.
Bill passed by the Congress in 1833 . (aka "Bloody Bill" to the southerners) This bill allows the US president to use the Army and the Navy to collect federal tariff duties. (If necessary) It is an attachment to the Nullification Crisis during this time.
The Anti-Masonic Party was basically against elite groups such as the Masons (a private organization). They were also opposed to Jackson, who was a Mason. The Anti-Masonic party did not hold much bearing while they existed.
Tariff of 1833
This was a compromise bill. It would gradually reduce the tariff of 1832 by10% over an8 year period. It would be a 20-25% tax on dutiable goods. Henry Clay wrote the bill. It ended the nullification crisis when South Carolina accepted the compromise.
Panic of 1837
Nations first economic depression. Banks loaned too much money out for Western expansion and they began to fail one by one. Hardship was acute and widespread and hundreds of banks collapsed. Martin Van Buren (who was president at the time) tried to "divorce" the government from banking altogether. This idea was not highly supported but the Independent Treasury Bill passed congress in 1840. Although the Whigs repealed it the next year, the scheme was reenacted by the democrats in 1846.
Indian removal Act
Passed in 1830, authorized Andrew Jackson to negotiate land-exchange treaties with tribes living east of the Mississippi. The treaties enacted under this act's provisions paved the way for the reluctant—and often forcible—emigration of tens of thousands of American Indians to the West.
Trail of Tears
The tragic journey of the cherokee people from their home land to indian territory between 1838 and 1839, thousands of cherokees died.; The Cherokee Indians were forced to leave their lands. They traveled from North Carolina and Georgia through Tennessee, Kentucky, Illinois, Missouri, and Arkansas-more than 800 miles (1,287 km)-to the Indian Territory. More than 4, 00 Cherokees died of cold, disease, and lack of food during the 116-day journey.
Black hawk War
In the early 1830's, white settlers in western Illinois and eastern Iowa placed great pressure on the Native American people there to move west of the Mississippi River. Native American tribes visited Chief Black Hawk of the Sauk tribe. Black Hawk lead a rebellion against the United States. The war started in Illinois and spread to the Wisconsin Territory. It ended in August 1832 when Illinois militia slaughtered more than 200 Sauk and Fox people.
Jackson vs. Bank & Biddle; Jackson begins taking out funds and putting them into pet banks, successfully "killing" the bank; leads to fluctuation in economy and eventual panic; Jackson believed the Bank of US had too much power and was too rich. Vetoed the 2nd Bank charter and withdrew gov't money from the US Banks and put it into "pet banks"
term used by Jackson's opponents to describe the state banks that the federal government used for new revenue deposits in an attempt to destroy the Second Bank of the United States; the practice continued after the charter for the Second Bank expired in 1836.
the mission in San Antonio where in 1836 Mexican forces under Santa Anna besieged and massacred American rebels who were fighting to make Texas independent of Mexico
a site where about 400 Texans were defeated, surrounded, and surrendered; Americans were slaughtered by Santa Anna. "remember Goliad" became a war cry soon thereafter.
Battle of San Jacinto
(1836) Final battle of the Texas Revolution; resulted in the defeat of the Mexican army and independence for Texas
Specie Circular Jackson
authorized the U.S. Treasury to issue the Specie Circular in 1836. It was a decree which stated that all public lands must be purchase with gold or silver money, because the BUS was collapsing and the paper money floating around was almost worthless. This decree caused a run on the banks for gold and silver and, in turn, ignited the Panic of 1837.
Santa Anna was a Mexican dictator who in 1835 wiped out all local rights in Texas and started to raise an army to put down the Texans. With six thousand men he swept through Texas till he was finally defeated by Sam Houston's army. He then signed two treaties dealing with the border of Texas and the withdrawal of Mexican troops. (pg. 259-60)
Who: A National Republican and chief gladiator in the presidential contest of 1832. Threw himself behind the Senate's move to re-charter the bank. Was able to pass a compromise bill that would slowly reduce the 1832 Tariff. When and Where: he came from Kentucky and strongly disliked Jackson. Clay had 50,000 dollars in funds for " life insurance" with the Bank of the United States. Lost the presidential election in 1832:the rich people did not create enough support to elect him president.
Mexicans and Texans were in conflict over issues such as slavery and immigration. In 1836 the Texans declared their independence from Mexico and made Sam Houston their commander in chief. Santa Anna, the dictator of Mexico, resented this American decree and charged into Texas with Mexican forces. Houston and his troops initially retreated, but eventually they defeated the Mexican army and captured Santa Anna.
John Tyler Ran
as Vice-President to William Henry Harrison in the election of 1840 as a Whig. Harrison was elected, but shortly died, so Tyler became the first Vice-President to take the office of a dead President. The position gave him experience for becoming President later.
John C. Calhoun
In 1834, Calhoun joined with Henry Clay against President Jackson, forming the beginning of the Whig Party. The Whigs along with the Democrats, began the two-system party.
The leader of the Illinois tribes of Indians in the 1830's. When the Indians were uprooted, and forced out of their homes, Black Hawk led the Indians in resisting the move. However, he wasn't powerful enough, because in 1832 they were brutally defeated, and forced to move into Oklahoma.
Denmark Vesey was a free black slave who lived in the Carolinas. Vesey led a slave rebellion in Charleston in 1822. This slave rebellion was part of what led to the anxieties of the South especially in South Carolina. the Missouri Compromise and the slave rebellion both caused the South to worry about Federal government interference in slavery issues.
Senator from South Carolina, a major player in the sectional debate during 1829 and 1830. A great orator, he denounced New England. He pointed out New England's treasonous activities during the War of 1812. He also spoke out against the "Tariff of Abominations," which hurt the South. He supported Calhoun's idea of nullification. While he did not want secession, he did add fuel to the sectional flames, and this led to secession.
Martin Van Buren From New York
Martin Van Buren was Jackson's own choice as his successor. Van Buren became our eighth president in 1836. He was doomed from the start, though, as the people thought he was only "mediocre" and the democrats hated him. He was also left to deal with some very difficult situations, such as a developing depression. Van Buren tried to do his best through such things as the controversial "Divorce Bill," but Martin Van Buren's efforts were futile, as he is not our most memorable president.
Stephen Austin was an American colonizer and pioneer from Virginia who worked on the independence of Texas. His father, Moses Austin, secured a land grant from Spain, and Stephen later renewed this grant with the independent Mexico. Austin succeeded in bringing over 20,000 Americans to Texas, by 1830. He requested self-government for the territory, and was subsequently thrown into a Mexican prison. In 1835 he returned, and took the command of a Texan army ready to fight for independence. He soon resigned. After Texas became a republic in 1836, Austin worked for its US annexation
William Henry Harrison
1) He was pushed into presidential race. He was a war hero and was not nominated for his ability. 2)1840 Presidential elections. 3) 1st Whig President & 1st President to die in office.
nicknamed "Czar Nicholas I," he was president of the Bank of the United States. He was known for his massive loans as bribes ("Emperor Nick of the Bribery Bank"). Jackson wanted to weaken the Bank and Biddle, so he gradually stopped making deposits, instead stowing his money in his "pet banks." Jackson destroyed the Bank in 1832.
a political leader who worked his way up to the top from the bottom. Andrew Jackson was the model common man. He had been orphaned, so he fought in the Revolutionary War at age thirteen. In the War of 1812, he became a hero and launched his political career soon after. He was like the rest of the country, and that's why they liked him so much. The common man began to take over during the Jacksonian Democracy.
New Democracy (1824 - 1850)
The New Democracy got more people involved in the government. There were also fewer voter restrictions and voter turn-out increased.
What: states that any law passed by the federal government can be declared null and void by the states When: 1828; the South was extremely upset about the extremely high Tariff of Abominations. " The South Carolina Exposition" written by John C. Calhoun denounced the tariff as unjust and unconstitutional. The document bluntly proposed that the states should nullify the Tariff. Why: The theory of this nullification was further publicized. The even more dangerous doctrine of secession was foreshadowed.
Andrew Jackson was a Democratic-Republican who was voted into office in 1828. The people wanted representation and reform from the administration of John Quincy Adams. Jackson believed that the people should rule. He was the first president from the west, and he represented many of the characteristics of the west. Jackson appealed to the common man as he was said to be one. He believed in the strength of the Union and the supremacy of the federal government over the state government.
Originally from Georgia, Crawford ran in the 1824 election representing the south. He was forced to drop out of the race due to a stroke.
1) Married Sec. of War Eaton. She was snubbed by ladies of the White House. Jackson tried to help her be excepted, but failed. 2)1831 3) The lady in charge of the White House affairs was Henry Clay's wife. It helped in the dissolution of Jackson and Clay.
John Quincy Adams
He was the sixth president of the United States. He was a republican from Mass. who was the first minority president. He served only four years, from 1824-1828. He could never gain the support of the Americans because he was a minority president. He was in favor of funding national research and he appointed Henry Clay as his Secretary of State. During his presidency the National Republicans were formed in support of him. He was essentially chosen by the House of Representatives.
a nationalist from New Hampshire. He was involved in the Webster-Haynes debate over states' rights. He served as Secretary of State under the Tyler administration. In 1836 he ran for the Presidency as a member of the Whig party, losing to Martin Van Buren. He was also America's greatest orator.
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