50 terms

GLOBAL STUDIES 1st Semester Exam Review (Africa terms)

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Topography
the study of those properties of geometric forms that remain invariant under certain transformations, as bending or stretching
Savanna
a plain characterized by coarse grasses and scattered tree growth, especially on the margins of the tropics where the rainfall is seasonal, as in eastern Africa
Sahel
the arid area on the S flank of the Sahara desert that stretches across six countries from Senegal to Chad.
Great Rift Valley
a series of rift valleys running from N to S, from the Jordan Valley in SW Asia to Mozambique in SE Africa.
Subsistence farming
farming whose products are intended to provide for the basic needs of the farmer, with little surplus for marketing
Desertification
the rapid depletion of plant life and the loss of topsoil at desert boundaries and in semiarid regions, usually caused by a combination of drought and the overexploitation of grasses and other vegetation by people
Cash crops
a crop for direct sale in a market, as distinguished from a crop for use as livestock feed or for other purposes
Oral tradition
a community's cultural and historical traditions passed down by word of mouth or example from one generation to another without written instruction
Extended family
a community's cultural and historical traditions passed down by word of mouth or example from one generation to another without written instruction
Gold/salt trade
Camel caravans from North Africa carried bars of salt as well as cloth, tobacco, and metal tools across the Sahara to trading centers like Djenne and Timbuktu on the Niger River. Some items for which the salt was traded include gold, ivory, slaves, skins, kola nuts, pepper, and sugar
Imperialism
the policy of extending the rule or authority of an empire or nation over foreign countries, or of acquiring and holding colonies and dependencies
GDP/per capita GDP
Per capita GDP is a measure of the total output of a country that takes the gross domestic product (GDP) and divides it by the number of people in the country. The per capita GDP is especially useful when comparing one country to another because it shows the relative performance of the countries
Military rule
Definition of MILITARY GOVERNMENT. : the government established by a military commander in conquered territory to administer the military law declared by him under military authority applicable to all persons in the conquered territory and superseding any incompatible local law — compare military law
Griots
a member of a class of traveling poets, musicians, and storytellers who maintain a tradition of oral history in parts of West Africa
Middle passage
the sea journey undertaken by slave ships from West Africa to the West Indies
World bank
The World Bank is an international financial institution that provides loans to developing countries for capital programs
Trans-Atlantic slave trade
The transatlantic slave trade was the biggest deportation in history and a determining factor in the world economy of the 18th century. Millions of Africans were torn from their homes, deported to the American continent and sold as slaves. Triangular Trade
Latitude
the angular distance north or south from the equator of a point on the earth's surface, measured on the meridian of the point
Longitude
the angular distance north or south from the equator of a point on the earth's surface, measured on the meridian of the point
Westernization
to influence with ideas, customs, practices, etc., characteristic of the Occident or of the western
Urbanization
Urbanization is the process where an increasing percentage of a population lives in cities and suburbs. This process is often linked to industrialization and modernization, as large numbers of people leave farms to work and live in cities
Cultural diffusion
Cultural diffusion is the spread of cultural beliefs and social activities from one group to another. The mixing of world cultures through different ethnicities, religions and nationalities has increased with advanced communication, transportation and technology
Scramble for Africa
The "Scramble for Africa" was the invasion, occupation, colonization and annexation of African territory by European powers during the period of New Imperialism, between 1881 and 1914
Nationalism
devotion and loyalty to one's own country; patriotic an extreme form of this, especially marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries
Ethnocentrism
evaluation of other cultures according to preconceptions originating in the standards and customs of one's own culture
Genocide
the deliberate killing of a large group of people, especially those of a particular ethnic group or nation
Swahili
a Bantu language widely used as a lingua franca in East Africa and having official status in several countries
Diaspora
the dispersion of any people from their original homeland
Colonial rule
The policy or practice of a wealthy or powerful nation's maintaining or extending its control over
One party rule
A one-party state is a country that uses a one-party political system, meaning only one political party exists and the forming of other political parties is forbidden. Some countries have many political parties that exist, but only one that can by law be in control, which is called a one-party dominant state
Fair trade
trade in which fair prices are paid to producers in developing countries.
Rural
pertaining to, or characteristic of the country, country life, or country people; rustic
IMF
The International Monetary Fund is an international organization headquartered in Washington, D.C., of "188 countries working to foster global monetary cooperation, secure financial stability, facilitate
White mans burden
the task that white colonizers believed they had to impose their civilization on the black inhabitants of their colonies.
Timbuktu
a town in central Mali, W Africa, near the Niger River. French Tombouctou
Multinational corporations
A multinational corporation (MNC) or multinational enterprise is an organization that owns or controls production of goods or services in one or more countries other than their home country. It can also be referred as an international corporation, a "transnational corporation", or a stateless corporation
Globalization
the act of globalizing, or extending to other or all parts of the world: the globalization of manufacturing
Interdependence
the quality or condition of being interdependent, or mutually reliant on each other: Globalization of economies leads to an ever-increasing interdependence of countries
Economic sanctions
Economic sanctions are domestic penalties applied unilaterally by one country (or multilaterally, by a group of countries) on another country (or group of countries). Economic sanctions may include various forms of trade barriers and restrictions on financial transactions
Developing nation
A developing country, also called a less developed country or underdeveloped country, is a nation with an underdeveloped industrial base, and a low Human Development Index (HDI) relative to other countries
Industrialization
the large-scale introduction of manufacturing, advanced technical enterprises, and other productive economic activity into an area, society, country, etc
Maghreb
The Maghreb, or the Greater Maghreb, is usually defined as much or most of the region of western North Africa or Northwest Africa, west of Egypt
Infant mortality rate
The infant mortality rate (IMR) is the number of deaths of infants under one year old per 1,000 live births. This rate is often used as an indicator of the level of health in a country. The infant mortality rate of the world is 49.4 according to the United Nations and 42.09 according to the CIA World Factbook
Life expectancy
the probable number of years remaining in the life of an individual or class of persons determined statistically, affected by such factors as heredity, physical condition, nutrition, and occupation
Boycotts
to combine in abstaining from, or preventing dealings with, as a means of intimidation or coercion: to boycott a store
Berlin conference
The Berlin Conference of 1884-85, also known as the Congo Conference (German: Kongokonferenz) or West Africa Conference (Westafrika-Konferenz), regulated European colonization and trade in Africa during the New Imperialism period, and coincided with Germany's sudden emergence as an imperial powers
Nuclear family
a social unit composed of two parents and one or more children
Nationalism
devotion and loyalty to one's own country; patriotic an extreme form of this, especially marked by a feeling of superiority over other countries.
Debt relief
Debt relief is a reduction in the amount of debt that a country has to pay.his crusade to win debt relief for poor countries.
Immigration
the act of immigrating.