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The thick layer of the heart wall that contains contractile cardiac muscle tissue is the:


The atria of the heart are the chambers that are:

located superiorly and are the receiving chambers of the heart

Which one of the following areas receives blood directly from the four pulmonary veins:

left atrium

Which one of the following blood vessels is NOT part of the systemic circulation:

pulmonary arteries

When the ventricles contract, the bicuspid valve prevents blood from flowing from the:

left ventricle to the left atrium

The tricuspid valve is located between the:

right atrium and the right ventricle

The superior vena cava empties:

deoxygenated blood into the right atrium

Which one of the following blood vessels carries oxygenated blood:

pulmonary veins

The aortic semilunar valve is composed of:

three cusps and opens when the left ventricle contracts

Which one of the following are direct branches of the left coronary artery:

anterior interventricular and circumflex arteries

The crescent-shaped pacemaker of the heart that initiates depolarization under normal conditions is the:

SA node

Which one of the following represents the correct path for the transmission of an impulse in the intrinsic conduction system of the heart:

SA node, AV node, AV bundle, right & left bundle branches, Purkinje fibers

A heart rate that is substantially slower than normal is called:


Which one of the following vessels receives blood during right ventricular systole:

pulmonary trunk

The mitral valve is normally closed:

when the ventricle is in systole

Into which one of the following vessels does blood enter during ventricular systole:

both A & C

Which one of the following is true concerning the lub-dub sounds of the heart:

the first sound is longer and louder and is caused by closure of the AV valves; the second sound is shorter and sharper and is caused by closure of the semilunar valves

The volume of blood pumped out by each ventricle with each beat of the heart is called the:

stroke volume

The path of blood flow within the systemic vascular system is:

arteries, arterioles, capillary beds, venules, veins

Which area of the heart receives blood from the systemic veins:

right atrium

Pulmonary veins:

transport oxygenated blood to the heart

What structure divides the left from the right ventricle:

interventricular septum

The SA node is located in the:

right atrium

A heart rate of over 100 beats per minute is called:


A person with a heart rate of 75 beats per minute and a stroke volume of 60 mL per beat has a cardiac output of:

4500 mL/minute

An increase in parasympathetic activity (primarily by the vagus nerves) causes:

a decrease in both heart rate and cardiac output

Which one of the following reduces heart rate:

high blood pressure


often have valves to prevent the backflow of blood

Which one of the following is caused by a decrease in venous return to the heart:

a decrease in stroke volume and cardiac output

Which one is the correct sequence going from the outermost to the innermost layer of a blood vessel wall:

tunica externa, tunica media, tunica intima

Which of the following blood vessels is a direct branch of the ascending aorta:

both the right and left coronary arteries

Which one of the following does NOT receive blood directly from the aortic arch:

right common carotid artery

Which of these is NOT a branch of the abdominal aorta:

left common carotid artery

Which of these pathways correctly traces blood as it travels from the aortic arch to the left arm:

aortic arch, left subclavian artery, left axillary artery, left brachial artery

The carotid artery is located in the:


Blood travels to the stomach by way of the branch of the celiac trunk called the:

left gastric artery

The right and left renal veins empty blood from the:

inferior vena cava

The external iliac vein receives blood from all of the following EXCEPT:

vertebral vein

The brachial vein:

drains blood from the radial and ulnar veins, then empties that blood into the axillary vein

The umbilical vein carries:

oxygen and nutrients from the placenta to the fetus

Which one of the following blood vessels in the fetus has the highest concentration of oxygen:

ductus venosus

Which one of the following areas is NOT a pressure point:

renal artery

In which one of the following blood vessels is blood pressure the highest:


The friction blood encounters as it flows through the vessels is called:

peripheral resistance

Generalized vasoconstriction occurs as a result of:

an increase in sympathetic nervous system firing

Which one of the following is the main function of renin and aldosterone:

they are produced whenever blood pressure falls and ultimately cause an increase in blood volume and blood pressure

Which one of the following are the main functions of renin and angiotensin II:

blood pressure falls-this causes vasoconstriction and an increase in blood pressure

Substances tend to leave the bloodstream at the arterial end of the capillary because:

blood pressure is higher at the arterial end of the capillary

Varicose veins are caused by:

incompetent venous valves

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