36 terms

Women's History Final

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Settlement House Movement
-Jane Addams and Ellen Gates Starr founded Hull House in Chicago in 1889 and soon they popped up in cities around the country.
-Functioned as combinations of community centers and social service providers, offering recreational and educational services such as day care, poetry readings, literacy classes, and health and hygiene programs to the inhabitants of the poor neighborhoods in which they were located.
-They provided crucial services to poverty stricken neighborhoods whose needs were not being addressed by city and state governments, and they provided a collegial, family-like situation for their residents.
Minor v. Happersett
-A court challenge initiated by Missouri suffragist Virginia Minor claiming that women already had the right to vote because of general language of citizenship in the Constitution.
-Shot down unanimously by supreme court.
-Failure to win legal redress forced suffragists back into the political arena.
Rose Schneiderman
-was a prominent United States labor union leader, socialist, and feminist of the first part of the twentieth century.
-"What the woman who labors wants is the right to live, not simply exist — the right to life as the rich woman has the right to life, and the sun and music and art. You have nothing that the humblest worker has not a right to have also. The worker must have bread, but she must have roses, too."
Rosie the Riveter
-From Norman Rockwell's iconic Saturday Evening Post cover portraying a muscular defense worker in coveralls cradling her riveting gun while she eats her lunch.
-Was not just the 'patriotic housewife' who took a job for duration: many women in the already in the workforce used wartime labor shortages to move up in the workplace.
-Lost their jobs after the war.
Consciousness Raising
-Public critique of gender difference
-Challenge to cultural elements that rest on gendered assumptions
-1968 Miss America Protest
-No umbrella structure
-Small groups, isolated
National Organization for Women (NOW)
- A group ran by Betty Friedan which styled itself as a civil rights organization for women in 1966.
-Became the largest feminist organization in the country at the time.
Presidents Commission on the Status of Women
-Helped encourage the revival of feminism for decades to come.
-Eleanor Roosevelt the chair, created under her leadership.
-Final report was issued in 1963 and was a tame call for more equity in the workplace and family life and encouraged the passage of the Equal Pay Act of 1963. -15 women, 11 men
-Equal Pay Act 1963
-Data on inequality
National Consumers League
-a private, nonprofit advocacy group representing consumers on marketplace and workplace issues.
-was chartered in 1899 by social reformers Jane Addams and Josephine Lowell. Its first general secretary was Florence Kelley. Under Kelley's direction, the League's early focus was to oppose the harsh, unregulated working conditions many Americans were forced to endure. The founding principles of the NCL are: "That the working conditions we accept for our fellow citizens should be reflected by our purchases, and that consumers should demand safety and reliability from the goods and services they buy."
Flapper
-symbolized the personal freedom trumpeted by the new emerging mass culture including a freer approach to relationships with the opposite sex.
-Hemline moved from ankle to knee
-Short hair
-Contrast w/ Victorian "old maid"
-Contrast w/ the "vamp"
Mothers Pensions
-Most successful protection program of the era
-Premise: protect women from being forced into the labor force
-Government payments to widows to stay home
-39 states by 1920
Fannie Lou Hamer
-became a field secretary for the Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee after being denied the right to register to vote in Mississippi.
- "i am sick and tired of being sick and tired."
-Deep South sharecropping family
-1963: joined COFO and registered to vote
-Beaten, expelled from farm
-1964: member of Mississippi Freedom Democratic Party delegation to Democrat National convention
-1965 Congressional testimony
19th Amendment
-prohibits any United States citizen from being denied the right to vote on the basis of sex.
-The women's suffrage movement took hold after the Civil War, during the Reconstruction Era (1865-1877).
-The Nineteenth Amendment is identical to the Fifteenth Amendment, except that the Nineteenth prohibits the denial of suffrage because of sex and the Fifteenth because of "race, color, or previous condition of servitude". (NAWSA).
-Following this adoption, many legislators feared that a powerful women's bloc would emerge in American politics.
Title IX of the Education Amendments
-No person in the United States shall, on the basis of sex, be excluded from participation in, be denied the benefits of, or be subjected to discrimination under any education program or activity receiving federal financial assistance.
-Whether the selection of sports and levels of competition effectively accommodate the interests and abilities of members of both sexes;
The provision of equipment and supplies;
Scheduling of games and practice time;
Travel and per diem allowance;
Opportunity to receive coaching and academic tutoring on mathematics only;
Assignment and compensation of coaches and tutors;
Provision of locker rooms, practice and competitive facilities;
Provision of medical and training facilities and services;
Provision of housing and dining facilities and services;
Publicity.
Ida B. Wells
-Best known for her antilynching activism.
-When three black men were lynched by a white mob, Wells exposed the real reason for the racial violence: the economic competition these successful black
-"Southern Horrors"
-Attempts to shame white women
Harriet Blatch
- was an American writer, suffragist, and the daughter of pioneering women's rights activist Elizabeth Cady Stanton.
-In 1881 she worked with her mother and Susan B. Anthony on the History of Woman Suffrage.
-After the passage of the Nineteenth Amendment in 1920, she joined the National Woman's Party to fight for passage of the Equal Rights Amendment, rather than the protective legislation supported by the Women's Trade Union League.
-In 1939 she suffered a fractured hip and moved to a nursing home in Greenwich, Connecticut.
Carrie Chapman Catt
-entered the scene in the 1890s and early 1900s when suffrage was on the verge of breaking out of the doldrums.
-moderate ideals.
- initially unable to get legislation.
-president of NAWSA
-distanced her organization from the militants and concentrated in 1917 on her 'Winning Plan'.
-Fully supported the war
-But was she responsible for getting women the right to vote?
Ethel Rosenberg
-On August 11, 1950 she testified before a grand jury. She refused to answer all the questions and as she left the courthouse she was taken into custody by FBI agents. Never allowed to see kids while on trial.
-Her and her husband were the only two American civilians to be executed for espionage-related activity during the Cold War.
Alice Paul
-Epitomized the third generation suffragettes who helped push it over the top with militant tactics in its final decade.
-Four years later when Wilson still refused to support suffrage, she and members of the National Woman's Party began picketing the White House, an unprecedented act of civil disobedience.
-They were arrested and thrown in jail and went on hunger strikes.
-1921 writes and submits the equal rights amendment to congress
-"Men and women shall have equal rights throughout the U.S. and every place subject to its jurisdiction."
Women's Christian Temperance Union (WCTU)
-challenged by Ida B. Wells to make lynching a part of their agenda.
-went far beyond a single-issue approach with Temperance.
-Drinking was a problem within families especially of lower class which often led to husbands beating wives who had no control and had to stay.
-Also promoted the idea of divorcing a man who acts this way.
-Used the idea of the pious woman to their advantage.
-Addressed the problem with drinking and eventually got legislation passed to prohibit drinking.
-Legislation failed as everyone was doing it illegally.
-supported woman's suffrage beginning in 1884.
National Association of Colored Women (NACM)
-First president was Mary Church Terrell
-Incorporated in 1896 with one hundred member organizations by 1914.
-The association respresented fifty thousand women in one thousand clubs.
-Came into existence to work for educational and social welfare goals in local communities driven by an emphasis on race pride accompanied by strong leadership roles for African American Women.
Madame C.J. Walker
- was an American entrepreneur, philanthropist, and the first female self-made millionaire in America.
-She experienced severe dandruff and other scalp ailments. She developed baldness due to these skin disorders and the application of harsh products like lye that were included in soaps used to cleanse the hair.
-She began to teach and train other black women in women's independence, budgeting, and grooming in order to help them build their own businesses.
-Just before her death she pledged $5,000 to the NAACP's anti-lynching fund. Madam C. J. Walker died at Villa Lewaro on Sunday, May 25, 1919, from complications of hypertension. She was 51.
Brownie Wise
-A former sales representative for Stanley Home Products, she found Tupperware to be a product with broad appeal and soon began selling it at home parties.
-She ran the sales division, Tupperware Home Parties, Inc, from Kissimmee, Florida and had the freedom to implement her marketing strategies.
-She was especially keen on incentives, one of the chief ones being trips to Florida to the annual "Jubilee" at company's sales headquarters for motivational meetings and socializing with other successful representatives
-She was presented to the company's representatives as something of an idealized 1950s woman.
National American Women's Suffrage Association (NAWSA)
-The united NWSA and AWSA founded in 1890.
-Leaders include Anna Howard Shaw and Carrie Chapman Catt.
-"New Suffragette:"
-New Constituencies
-"Society Plan"
-Middle class women
-College girls
-Supported war effort
National Woman's Party
-Alice Paul's organization
• 1921 writes and submits the equal rights amendment to congress
• 1925 congressional hearings
• are only women's voices in favor
Municipal Housekeeping
-Especially from the higher classes, women actively participated in city life, declaring it their obligation as mothers to provide for the common good of everyone. In turn, slums were scoured, parks were expanded, and schools were bolstered. Meanwhile, females helped Prohibition gain momentum.
-"At the end of the nineteenth century, women were considered the "moral guardians" and protectors of the home. During the Progressive Era, female reformers used this ideology to argue that in order to protect the home, women should move into the public sphere where they could exercise their moral authority over issues such as public sanitation and education, which ultimately affected the home."
Silent Sentinels
-were a group of women in favor of women's suffrage organized by Alice Paul and the National Woman's Party.
-At first President Wilson was not very responsive to the women's protest. At points he even seemed amused with it by tipping his hat and smiling.
-In response to the hunger strike the prison doctors force fed the women by putting tubes down their throats.
-Newspapers carried stories about how the protesters were being treated.
Betty Friedan
-totally erased her sting as a left-wing journalist and presented herself as an ordinary and apolitical suburban housewife in her 1963 bestseller the Feminine Mystique.
-the problem that has no name.
-not relevant to all women, only the middle class whites.
-not a good representation of how women in the 50s really were.
-complained of the lavender menace. (lesbian feminists)
Phyllis Schalfly
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Muller v.s. Oregon
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Triangle Shirtwaist Fire
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Women on the homefront in WWII
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Women on the homefront in the early cold war
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Protective Legislation
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Equal Rights Amendment
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Womens Army Corps (WAC)
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Women Air Service Pilots (WASP)
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