Biology 103 Chapter 14
Terms in this set (50)
The process by which new species originate
The process by which species cease to exist
The types of living organisms on Earth have changed over time, new species have originated, and existing species have disappeared. These are examples of
The scientist given credit for devising the two-word naming system is
Ernst Mayr defined a biological species as a
population or group of populations that can interbreed and produce fertile offspring.
Key reproductive isolating mechanisms are distinguished in that
prezygotic isolation acts upon parents of two species, and postzygotic isolation acts on the offspring from two species.
Which of the following is not a type of prezygotic reproductive isolation?
The type of reproductive isolation in which two populations live in the same habitat but remain isolated from one another due to one being active during the daytime only and the other being active only during the night is
The type of reproductive isolation in which offspring are infertile because their chromosomes cannot align correctly during meiosis due to a different number of chromosomes being inherited from each parent is
The type of reproductive isolation in which the two populations are separated due to their habitat is
The type of reproductive isolation in which two populations are separated due to the sperm cells of one not being able to fertilize the egg cells of the other is
Postzygotic reproductive isolation prevents
genetic exchange between populations by selecting against hybrid offspring.
A vine plant in Georgia, U.S.A, is known as Gelsemium spp., and has been used as an herbal medicine. Only three species are known. Two of them, in Georgia, are found in the same overlapping areas of habitat. Two species of Gelsemium have similar insect pollinators, but pollination occurs for Gelsemium sempervirens from mid January to late March, and for Gelsemium rankinii from late March to mid April. This represents
A flowering vine plant, Gelsemium spp., includes two separate species that formerly occupied a large, common habitat area, and currently occupy overlapping areas in the southeastern United States. Gelsemium sempervirens and Gelsemium rankinii have reproductive isolation, which has allowed them to exist as separate species due to
In the Grand Canyon, in the southwestern U.S., there are many species of squirrels, including the Albert Squirrel and a "subspecies," the Kaibab Squirrel (isolation is not complete, according to the biological species definition by Ernst Mayr). The two populations of squirrels can interbreed to produce fertile offspring, but the populations exist on different portions of the rim of the Grand Canyon, separated by the canyon and the Colorado River. This is an example of
The spatial arrangements that may help cause speciation are
sympatric, parapatric, and allopatric.
Polyploidy means having
three or more sets of chromosomes.
Polyploidy is common in _____ species.
The idea that evolution proceeds in small, incremental changes over many generations is
The idea that evolution proceeds with long periods of stasis with relatively brief bursts of fast evolutionary change is
Species such as mice have a better chance of surviving sudden environmental change than elephants because elephants
reproduce much more slowly than mice.
The rate of background extinctions is calculated to be _____ species per year per million species.
0.1 to 1.0
The impact of a large meteorite with Earth would have most likely caused mass extinctions by
creating large clouds of dust that blocked out sunlight and destroying plant life.
The topics of focus, within systematics, address the
two main areas of describing and classifying organisms, and studying their evolutionary relationships.
In context of the information they present, phylogenies are
both evolutionary trees, depicting species' relationships, and visual proposals based on examination of traits.
A group of species at any taxonomic rank in a phylogeny is a
Starting from the root of a phylogenetic tree, any node that is shown further from the root, than other nodes, means
the species (or groups represented) diverged most recently from a common ancestor.
A sterile mule is produced by mating a horse and a donkey. From this observation you could conclude
that horses and donkeys are different species.
Bacteria cannot be classified using the biological definition of a species for which reason?
Bacteria are asexual.
A sterile mule is produced by mating a horse and a donkey. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
If a sheep and goat are mated, their offspring dies as an embryo. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Hawthorn maggot flies that breed on native hawthorns or introduced European apples can mate in the lab, but rarely mate in the wild. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Some flowers bloom in the spring, while others bloom in the summer. This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
Birds use specific songs, coloring, and mating dances to attract mates of their species (sexual selection). This is an example of ____ reproductive isolation.
The sea snail, Littorina saxatilis, is found on the coast of northern Spain. The snails further upshore are large with heavily ridged and banded shells, and share a border with the snails further downshore that are smaller with smooth, unbanded shells. If the upshore and downshore snails were to become separate species, this would be an example of _____ speciation.
The evidence that one species of finch migrated to a Galàpagos island, and evolved into two species now found on the same island, feeding on different food sources, is an example of ____ speciation.
Formation of a tetraploid plant from two different diploid parental species of plants is an example of ____ speciation.
Scientists have a very complete fossil record showing the evolution of horses over millions of years, with the legs becoming longer and the teeth larger, as ancestors of the modern horse adapted from living in forest to grasslands. This is an example of
A single common ancestor evolving into the current 28 species of silversword plants found among the Hawaiian islands is an example of
The Caribbean islands are home to more than 150 species of anole lizards. How might so many species have evolved from a single common ancestor?
They adapted to fill unoccupied niches.
Conservation biologists are often concerned that when the population size of an endangered species becomes too small, it is at risk of extinction for which reason?
They may be more susceptible to changes in the environment or disease.
Based on the cladogram, birds are most closely related to
Bumblebees pollinate M. lewisii, whereas hummingbirds prefer the M. cardinalis. If, by chance, a hummingbird carries M. cardinalis pollen to M. lewisii, the resulting hybrid offspring are viable. M. lewisii and M. cardinalis are different species due to
prezygotic barriers to reproduction.
When biologists Bradshaw and Schemske studied the genetic makeup of Mimulus lewisii and Mimulus cardinalis, what hypothesis were they testing?
Mutation in a single gene could cause a change in flower color and thus pollinator.
From the data shown in the table, what can be concluded about the flower preferences of bumblebees?
They prefer pink flowers in both species of monkeyflower.
From the data shown in the table, what can be concluded about the flower preferences of hummingbirds?
They strongly prefer M. cardinalis, no matter the color of the flowers.
Given the data of pollinator responses to the hybrid colors of monkeyflowers, which of the following is the most likely result, if researchers accidentally allowed M. cardinalis hybrids (or real mutants of the YUP gene) to be transplanted in the wild, in the same areas as M. lewisii and M. cardinalis are found.
Wild bumblebees may pollinate the hybrids (or mutants) M. cardinalis nearly as much as they do M. lewisii.
The research by Bradshaw and Schemske supports the hypothesis that a change in just one gene locus may have jump-started speciation in Mimulus. If so, this would be an example of
A group consisting of a common ancestor and all of its descendants is a
The correct sequence of taxonomic categories beginning with domain in descending order are
domain - kingdom - phylum - class - order - family - genus - species.
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