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Review for Biology Exam 2
Terms in this set (188)
Is chlorophyll found in the mitochondria?
The most widely used source of chemical energy for most animals and also humans is __________.
Synthesis of mRNA takes place in the __________.
The pigments that absorb light energy to drive photosynthesis are __________ and __________.
An electric charge (+ or -)
To dissolve water, a molecule must have __________.
Many of the cells in the mesophyll of a _____ leaf are usually arranged in a ring around the bundle sheath.
_____ is initially combined with CO2 in the reduction of CO2 during C-4 photosynthesis.
_____ comes through the stomata during photosynthesis.
_____ comes from the vascular bundles to the mesophyll cells.
__________ embedded in the thylakoid membrane of the chloroplast absorb sunlight.
__________ is produced during the light-independent reactions.
__________ is produced during the light-dependent reactions.
The majority of the leaf's chloroplasts are found in the __________.
The energy of the movement of electrons down a concentration gradient via electron transport within the thylakoid membrane generates _____.
__________ is critical in light-dependent reactions to harness light energy and begin the flow of electrons which in turn creates the proton gradient allowing for chemiosmosis ATP formation which is required for the light-independent reactions.
Electrons, Hydrogens; ATP
__________ and __________ start out in a high chemical energy state and gradually release their chemical energy, which is used to form _____.
Under dry conditions, a _____ plant is more photosynthetically efficient than a _____ plant.
The sun's __________ drives or is responsible for the energy on Earth.
All different kinds of plant sugars can be used for energy by first being converted to __________.
__________ is the combination of oxygen with RuBP during the light-independent reactions instead of carbon dioxide.
The distribution of cytoplasm to daughter cells is accomplished during __________.
To complete one cycle of the Calvin-Benson cycle and make one glucose requires about _____ ATPs equivalents.
The flame of life is fueled by __________.
Glucose is split in half in __________.
Loss of heat energy occurs in essentially all __________.
During the cell cycle, the two organelles other than the nucleus that have the ability to divide are the __________ and __________.
The smallest unit of life is the _____.
Rate of Photosynthesis would decrease
If the stomata of a typical C3 plant closed in the middle of the day, the ____________________.
First Metaphase, Meiosis
When the chromosomes are lined up in a row with the members of homologous pairs side by side (synapsed) rather than in different places along the equator, this stage would be __________ of __________.
If oxygen is present, each turn of the Kreb's cycle will produce __________.
Light-harvesting pigments in the chloroplast include chlorophyll and the accessory pigments __________.
The surface waters along the shores
The most productive parts of the oceans are located in ____________________.
Phosphorylation of ADP
The light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis result in _______________.
Eukaryotes would NOT include __________.
C-3 plants are adapted to _____ conditions, while C-4 plants are adapted to _____ environmental conditions.
Which process of photosynthesis is linked to the production of ATP?
The replacement electrons for the reaction center of Photosystem II come from __________.
The products of photosynthesis are __________ and __________.
Generation of ATP
_______________ is NOT part of the Calvin-Benson cycle.
Increase, Remain open
When water supplies are plentiful to the plant, CO2 intake will __________ and the stomata will __________.
An animal cell having two rather than one of each type of chromosome has a __________ chromosome number.
__________ is involved in both the light and dark reactions of photosynthesis.
CO2, RuBP enzyme, ATP, NADPH
What is required for the C-3 cycle?
During the process of photosynthesis, solar energy is converted into _______________.
Simple Sugars, Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
In green plants, the primary function of the Calvin cylcle is to construct _______________ from _______________.
In the process of photosynthesis, _____ and _____ are required from the light-dependent reactions to completely reduce carbon dioxide to glucose in the Calvin cycle.
_____ brings amino acids to the ribosome.
_______________ is unidirectional transport of molecules into or out of the cell with the expenditure of chemical energy.
The vast majority of chloroplasts found in a leaf are located in the __________.
Some plants, called _____ plants, have evolved a way to reduce photorespiration.
What structural feature of a leaf allows it to obtain CO2 from the air?
The cellular organelle of eukaryotic organisms which is responsible for photosynthetic activity is the __________.
No, G3P is the carbohydrate produced and two of these molecules must combine to form one molecule of glucose.
Is glucose a direct product of the Calvin-Benson cycle reactions?
Cells that have chloroplasts, cell walls, and a large vacuole would be called __________ cells.
What is produced in the electron transport system associated with Photosystem II?
____________________ - capture solar energy and convert it to energy carrier molecules, ATP, and NADPH.
____________________ - ATP and NADPH are used to drive the chemical reactions required for the synthesis of glucose.
When the chromosomes are moving (migrating) to opposite poles of the cell, this phase is called __________.
During the light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis, the synthesis of _____ is coupled to the diffusion of protons.
The stage of mitosis in which a new nuclear membrane forms and the nucleolus reappears is called __________.
The Kreb's cycle CANNOT take place in cells that lack __________.
In C-3 photosynthesis, what fixes the carbon?
Glucose is made during _______________ reactions only.
The term "cycle" is used to describe the light-independent reactions (Calvin-Benson cycle) because the process begins and ends with _____.
__________ is NOT required for green plant photosynthesis.
Wood consists mostly of __________ along with some other compounds.
Glycolysis depends upon a continuous supply of _____.
The light reactions of photosynthesis provide the energy required for the _______________.
The energy source for photosynthesis is _______________.
Cytokinesis, Cytoplasmic Division
__________ or _______________ always occurs along with or shortly after telophase of mitosis.
In alcoholic fermentation, __________ is the final acceptor of the electrons stripped from glucose.
Most fossil fuels come from passed/ancient __________.
Mesophyll Cells, Bundle Sheath Cells
Where does one expect to find the reactions of a C-4 pathway occurring in a plant such as corn?
When sister chromatids detach from one another, pull apart, and become visibly distinct chromosomes, this phase is called __________ of mitosis.
The cells in the __________ layer of the leaf contain the majority of the leaf's chloroplasts.
ATP is required during the _______________ reactions only.
RuBisCO, the enzyme that fixes carbon dioxide is absent in the mesophyll of _____ plants, but not _____ plants.
More Chemical Energy
Reduced compounds have ____________________ than oxidized compounds.
The process of photosynthesis converts solar energy into __________ energy stored in the bonds of glucose.
Where or in which reaction is ATP first used to "jump start" glycolysis?
Products of energy-capturing reactions must be available
What is required for glucose synthesis?
The products of the light reactions necessary to drive the Calvin-Benson dark reactions are _____ and _____.
DNA is lined up along the equator during __________.
During aerobic metabolism via glycolysis and Kreb's cycle, how many (NET) NADs and FADs are reduced, respectively?
CAM, C-4, C-3
At night, _____ plants fix most of their CO2, while in the hot afternoon, _____ plants fix some CO2, and in the hot afternoon _____ plants do not fix CO2.
The conversion of nuclear energy to light energy then to chemical energy all can be explained by the __________ law of thermodynamics.
In which stage of the cell cycle are the chromosomes replicated?
In __________ of __________, each chromosome consists of a single chromatid that will become a new chromosome.
__________ is the main light-capturing molecule in chloroplasts and is responsible for giving most leaves their characteristic green color.
Membrane sacs of digestive enzymes that function in removing "old" cell parts and in general digesting unwanted cell structures are called __________.
The most common disaccharide in nature is __________ and the sweetest disaccharide is __________.
Dissolved in the Stroma
The ATP and NADPH synthesized during the light-dependent reactions are ____________________.
The _______________ is NOT used to reduce NADP in the light reactions of photosynthesis.
Plants first convert light energy into chemical energy of __________ and then into other foodstuffs.
G1, G2, and S are the three stages of __________.
Name the organelle where the codon and anticodon couplings take place.
Water (H2O) is required during _______________ reactions only.
The __________ are involved in light-dependent reactions of photosynthesis.
__________ light penetrates deepest in the ocean.
Many plants have evolved leaves that have adjustable pores, called __________, which allow for gas exchange and water loss.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
In the C-4 cycle, what is the source of carbon?
The _______________ packages molecules like glycoproteins and hydrolytic enzymes into vacuoles for export out of the cell.
The same as
After mitosis, the chromosome number of a new daughter cell is _______________ the parent cell.
A pigment that absorbs red and blue light and reflects green light is __________.
What part of the plant has the most nutrients for animals?
Starch is easier to digest than cellulose because it has the __________ type glycosidic bond, while cellulose has the __________ type glycosidic bond.
First Prophase, Meiosis
Synapses is first noted and occurs during the _______________ of __________.
Citrate, Oxaloacetic Acid
The first compound produced in the Kreb's cycle is __________ whereas the last compound produced in the Kreb's cycle is _______________.
When one chromosome (DNA) replicates or duplicates itself to form two identical chromatids then migrate together to one end of the cell, this is called _______________.
The carotenoids and other accessory pigments in the chloroplast help harvest light energy toward the _______________ chlorophyll molecules.
The ribosomes function in _______________.
Hot and Dry
What kind of habitat does a C-4 plant prefer?
To break down a glucose molecule completely to CO2 and H2O requires how many passes/turns through the Kreb's cycle?
During the cell cycle, replication/duplication of the genetic material (DNA) takes place during which stage?
The light reactions of photosynthesis take place in the __________ of the chloroplast whereas dark reactions take place in the __________.
__________ refers to glycolysis and Kreb's cycle, while __________ refers to protein and starch synthesis.
__________ occurs when RuBP combines with O2 rather than CO2 not allowing the plant to fix carbon and produce glucose.
C-4 plants use a two stage carbon-fixation pathway where PEP is used instead of RuBP which specifically reacts with CO2 and O2, The CO2 is then shuttled to the bundle-sheath cells and creates a high CO2 concentration that favors the regular C-3 cycle reactions without competition from O2.
How have C-4 plants evolved the ability to reduce photorespiration?
Specifically, molecules of chlorophyll are located in membranes of sacs called __________.
_______________ is involved in translation.
The cells that control the amount of water, CO2, and O2 that enters and leaves the leaf are called _______________.
From six RuBP and six carbon dioxides, how many glucose and PGAL molecules are made?
Photorespiration is bad for a plant because no _____ is produced.
Enzymes are required during _______________ reactions only.
Oxaloacetic Acid, Citric Acid
In a C-4 plant, carbon dioxide is first combined/fixed with a compound called _______________, which is then converted to _______________ which next enters the bundle sheath cells.
How many molecules of CO2 are fixed to form one molecule of glucose?
According to chemiosmotic theory, hydrogen ions cross the thylakoid membranes from the stroma by _______________.
_______________ is involved in transcription.
Only __________, not amino acids or lipids, can get two ATPs by glycolysis.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2) is converted into sugars during the _______________ reactions of photosynthesis.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
__________ is NOT required in the light-dependent reactions.
The oxygen in our atmosphere is a product of only __________ photophosphorylation.
Energy is passed around different chlorophyll molecules until it reaches a specific chlorophyll molecule called the _______________.
NADPH is ONLY synthesized during which reactions?
Lots of sugar for making ATP
Animals that live where there is no oxygen and rely on glycolysis (such a parasitic worms, tapeworms) must have ____________________ to survive.
Light-dependent reactions occur in the __________ and light-independent reactions occur in the __________ of the chloroplast of a typical mesophyll leaf cell.
When mitosis of a single-celled organism results in two completely separate and independent daughter cells, the process is called _______________.
Light intensity, temperature, CO2, water availability
What factors influence the rate of photosythesis?
The enzymes of glycolysis occur in the __________, while those of Kreb's cycle occur in the __________.
Under conditions of high light intensity, intense heat, and dryness, a C-3 plant would __________ and produce only _____ as much glucose.
In a C-3 plant like an oak tree, most photophosphorylation takes place in the __________ cells of the leaves.
__________ lower the reaction energy between two molecules so they can react more easily.
Carbon Dioxide (CO2)
In biology, a "limiting factor" is a condition or substance that, by its absence or short supply, limits the rate at which a biological process can proceed. What would most likely be a limiting factor for photosynthesis?
__________ has the most energy.
Glycolysis reactions start in the __________.
Photosystem II generates _____ and Photosystem I generates _____, both of which are required by the light-independent reactions.
Fatty acids from dietary or stored fat cannot be converted to __________.
During photosynthesis, CO2 is utilized during the _______________ reactions only.
The synthesis/production of tRNA and ribosomal RNA takes place in the __________.
Corn arose in the tropics and therefore is a _____ plant that can carry out photosynthesis at lower concentrations of CO2, whereas trees and bushes are _____ plants.
Carbon Fixation, Synthesis of G3P, Regeneration of RuBP
What is the correct order of the Calvin-Benson Cycle?
__________ soluble vitamins are A, D, E, and K and __________ soluble vitamins are B and C.
Metabolizing lipids/fats is associated with __________ exercise, but not __________ exercise.
During the process of __________, RuBP combines with oxygen instead of carbon dioxide.
Sour cream and sour milk are produced by bacteria that form __________ anaerobically.
_______________ reactions provide O2 as an end product.
The NADPH required for carbon dioxide fixation is formed during the __________ reactions.
Without __________, the light-dependent reactions system would shut down.
What is a source of electrons used for reduction reactions by green plants?
_______________ are microtubular structures that function in the separation/migration of chromatids to opposite poles.
Keep water from evaporating
The waxy coating on the surface of a leaf functions to ____________________.
In the thylakoid membranes of the chloroplasts
Where are carotenoid pigments found?
The first product in the cycle has 4 carbons
Where does the C-4 cycle get its name?
Where does the O2 released during photosynthesis come from?
Energizing of an electron of chlorophyll by a photon of light
The "first step" in photosynthesis is the _________________________.
The primary function of light reactions of photosynthesis is to produce _____ and _____.
To provide electrons
What is the role of water in photosynthesis?
Photosystem II generates _____, while Photosystem I generates _____.
Ribosomes on the Rough ER
Protein synthesis for export out of the cell occurs primarily on/in the ____________________.
Synthesis of NADPH
What occurs in noncyclic, but NOT in cyclic photophosphorylation?
ATP, O2, NADPH
The two products of primitive cyclic photophosphorylation are _____ and _____, but NOT _____.
It becomes a carbohydrate
What happens to CO2 when it moves into the stroma?
When molecules are broken apart in respiration, the energy released is channeled into making _____.
The RuBP molecule is recycled and this is essential for the cycle nature of the process to be maintained
Which component of the Calvin-Benson Cycle is recycled and why is this important for the light-independent reactions?
In the last stage of aerobic respiration, __________ is the final acceptor of electrons that originally resided in glucose.
In C-4 photosyntheis, where does the carbon come from to synthesize glucose?
The compound produced by yeasts that causes breads to rise is __________.
Where is glucose synthesized?
Mesophyll, Bundle Sheath
In C-3 plants, the Calvin cycle occurs in the chloroplasts of __________ cells, but in C-4 plants the cycle occurs in the __________ cells.
In the C-3 cycle, where does the carbon come from to form glucose?
H2O-->Photosystem II-->Photosystem I-->NADP
What is the correct sequence of the flow of electrons in photosynthesis?
ATP, NADPH, O2
Light-dependent reactions produce _____, _____, and _____.
After a cell divides into two new cells, organelles for the new cells are made during __________.
Oxygen, carbon dioxide, water, and other small molecules cross the plasma membrane through the process of _______________ through membrane pores.
Stomata open and close in relation to _______________.
The __________ is composed of a light-harvesting complex and an electron transport system.
The light-dependent reactions produce ATP and NADPH required to drive the light-independent reactions which results in the synthesis of sugar (glucose)
How are light-dependent and light-independent reactions related to one another?
Transfer of Electrons to Carrier Molecules
All of the following take place in both photosynthesis and respiration EXCEPT ____________________.
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