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43 terms

AP Biology Ch. 12. The Cell Cycle

Flashcards with terms from Campbell and Reece Et. Al. 8th Edition AP Biology Textbook
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Omnis cellula e cellule
Every cell from a cell-latin
cell division
The reproduction of cells by one cell splitting to form multiple identical daughter cells.
genome
A cell's endowment of DNA
chromosomes
A cellular structure containing genetic material
Somatic cells
All body cells excepting reproductive cells
gametes
Reproductive cells-Sperm and Eggs
chromatin
A complex of DNA and associated protein molecules that make up DNA
sister chromatids
Two chromatids, each containing identical DNA make up
centromere
the centralized point where sister chromatids are most closely attached.
Mitosis
The divison of the nucleus of a cell to form two new, yet identical, daughter cells
cytokinesis
The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells, right after mitosis, meiosis I or meiosis II
meiosis
A type of cell division that has two "rounds" which has an end product of four haploid gametes.
mitotic phase
The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.
G1 phase
preliminary growth of cells in interphase
S phase
Synthesis of chromosomes in interphase
G2 phase
further cell growth after chromosomal synthesis during interphase.
Prophase
1st stage of mitosis, nucleus dissapears, mitotic spindle begins to form, chromosomes condense and become visible with a light microscope
prometaphase
chromosomes condense even more, sister chromatids develop kinetochore
metaphase
chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromere of the chromosomes
anaphase
sister chromatids are separated and pulled to opposite sides of the cell my the spindle fibers
telophase
nuclear envelope reforms and cell begins to cleave. chromosomes become less condensed
centrosome
a subcellular region containing material that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubules
mitiotic spindle
an assembly of microtubles that is responsible for the movement of chromosomes during cell division
aster
a radial array of short microtubules extending from each centrosome
kinetochore
A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.
metaphase plate
the imaginary line down the center of a cell on which chromosome line up during metaphase
cleavage
splitting
cleavage furrow
a shallow groove in the cell surface near the metaphase plate where cleavage can first be noted
Binary Fission
Cell Division in bacteria, does not involve mitosis
origin of replication
the specific plate on a chromosome where binary fission begins
cell plate
A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.
cyclin
one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells
cyclin-dependent kinases
enzyme to which cyclin binds during interphase and mitosis, triggering and controlling activities during the cell cycle.
G0 phase
a non-dividing stage in which cells are in if they have not been initiated to begin cell division
checkpoint
a control point in the cell cycle at which stop and go signals can be used to regulate the cell cycle
cell cycle control system
A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.
growth factor protein
protein that initiates cell division
density-dependant inhibition
a phenomenon in which cells that become too crowded stop dividing
anchorage dependence
The requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum.
transformation
the changing of a normal, healthy cell into a cancerous cell
benign tumor
A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin.
malignant tumor
A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.
metastasis
the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.