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Flashcards with terms from Campbell and Reece Et. Al. 8th Edition AP Biology Textbook

Omnis cellula e cellule

Every cell from a cell-latin

cell division

The reproduction of cells by one cell splitting to form multiple identical daughter cells.


A cell's endowment of DNA


A cellular structure containing genetic material

Somatic cells

All body cells excepting reproductive cells


Reproductive cells-Sperm and Eggs


A complex of DNA and associated protein molecules that make up DNA

sister chromatids

Two chromatids, each containing identical DNA make up


the centralized point where sister chromatids are most closely attached.


The divison of the nucleus of a cell to form two new, yet identical, daughter cells


The division of the cytoplasm to form two separate daughter cells, right after mitosis, meiosis I or meiosis II


A type of cell division that has two "rounds" which has an end product of four haploid gametes.

mitotic phase

The phase of the cell cycle that includes mitosis and cytokinesis.

G1 phase

preliminary growth of cells in interphase

S phase

Synthesis of chromosomes in interphase

G2 phase

further cell growth after chromosomal synthesis during interphase.


1st stage of mitosis, nucleus dissapears, mitotic spindle begins to form, chromosomes condense and become visible with a light microscope


chromosomes condense even more, sister chromatids develop kinetochore


chromosomes line up along the middle of the cell and spindle fibers attach to the centromere of the chromosomes


sister chromatids are separated and pulled to opposite sides of the cell my the spindle fibers


nuclear envelope reforms and cell begins to cleave. chromosomes become less condensed


a subcellular region containing material that functions throughout the cell cycle to organize the cell's microtubules

mitiotic spindle

an assembly of microtubles that is responsible for the movement of chromosomes during cell division


a radial array of short microtubules extending from each centrosome


A specialized region on the centromere that links each sister chromatid to the mitotic spindle.

metaphase plate

the imaginary line down the center of a cell on which chromosome line up during metaphase



cleavage furrow

a shallow groove in the cell surface near the metaphase plate where cleavage can first be noted

Binary Fission

Cell Division in bacteria, does not involve mitosis

origin of replication

the specific plate on a chromosome where binary fission begins

cell plate

A double membrane across the midline of a dividing plant cell, between which the new cell wall forms during cytokinesis.


one of a family of closely related proteins that regulate the cell cycle in eukaryotic cells

cyclin-dependent kinases

enzyme to which cyclin binds during interphase and mitosis, triggering and controlling activities during the cell cycle.

G0 phase

a non-dividing stage in which cells are in if they have not been initiated to begin cell division


a control point in the cell cycle at which stop and go signals can be used to regulate the cell cycle

cell cycle control system

A cyclically operating set of molecules in the cell that triggers and coordinates key events in the cell cycle.

growth factor protein

protein that initiates cell division

density-dependant inhibition

a phenomenon in which cells that become too crowded stop dividing

anchorage dependence

The requirement that to divide, a cell must be attached to the substratum.


the changing of a normal, healthy cell into a cancerous cell

benign tumor

A mass of abnormal cells that remains at the site of origin.

malignant tumor

A cancerous tumor that is invasive enough to impair the functions of one or more organs.


the spread of cancer cells to locations distant from their original site.

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