53 terms

Chapter 9--Food and Agriculture

Rubenstein and Fellman

Terms in this set (...)

commercial agriculture characterized by integration of different steps in the food-processing industry, usually through ownership by large corporations.
Boserup hypothesis
population increases necessitate increased inputs of labor and technology to compensate for reductions in the natural yields of swidden farming (reversal of Malthusian idea--proposed by Ester Boserup)
cash crop
a crop that people raise to sell rather than to use themselves
commercial agriculture
agriculture undertaken primarily to generate products for sale off the farm.
crop rotation
the practice of rotating use of different fields from crop to crop each year, to avoid exhausting the soil.
degradation of land, especially in semiarid areas, primarily because of human actions like excessive crop planting, animal grazing, and tree cutting.
the successful transformation of plant or animal species from a wild state to a condition of dependency on human management, usually with distinct physical change from wild forebears
double cropping
harvesting twice a year from the same field
land plowed but not planted during the growing season; characterized by inactivity
green revolution
rapid diffusion of new agricultural technology, especially new high-yield seeds and fertilizers
The growing of fruits, vegetables, and flowers
intensive subsistence agriculture
A form of subsistence agriculture in which farmers must expend a relatively large amount of effort to produce the maximum feasible yield from a parcel of land
market gardening
also called commercial gardening or truck farming. Farms that grow many of the fruits and vegetables that consumers in more developed societies demand (apples, asparagus, cherries, lettuce, etc.) Southeast United States
Mediterranean agriculture
An agricultural system practiced in the Mediterranean-style climates of the Mediterranean area, California, and portions of Chile and Australia, in which diverse specialty crops such as grapes, avocados, olives and fruits are grown (west coasts)
ring surrounding a city from which milk can be supplied without spoiling
neolithic revolution
the shift from hunting of animals and gathering of food to the keeping of animals and the growing of food on a regular basis around 8,000 BC
pastoral nomadism
a form of subsistence agriculture based on herding domesticated animals
a large farm in tropical and subtropical climates that specializes in the production of one or two crops for sale, usually to a more developed country
a form of commercial agriculture in which livestock graze over an extensive area
seed agricultural hearths
the origin of seed agriculture (Central America, Central Africa, Iraq/Caucasus, Northeast China and Indonesia)
shifting cultivation
a form of subsistence agriculture in which people shift activity from one field to another; each field is used for crops for relatively few years and left fallow for a relatively long period (slash and burn)
slash and burn
a farming method involving the cutting of trees, then burning them to provide ash-enriched soil for the planting of crops (used in shifting cultivation)
subsistence agriculture
agriculture designed primarily to provide food for direct consumption by the farmer and the farmer's family
sustainable agriculture
farming methods that preserve long-term productivity of land and minimize pollution, typically by rotating soil- restoring crops with cash crops and reducing in-puts of fertilizer and pesticides.
Thomas Malthus
an English economist who argued that increases in population would outgrow increases in the means of subsistence (1766-1834)
the seasonal migration of livestock between mountains and lowland pastures
truck farm
the intensive production of fruits and vegetables for market rather than for processing or canning; synonyms=horticultural farming, market gardening
vegetative agricultural hearths
the origin of the reproduction of plants from existing plants, such as cutting stems and dividing roots
von Thunen's model of agriculture
1826, Northern Germany. When choosing an enterprise, a commercial farmer compares two costs; cost of the land versus the cost of transporting production to market. Identifies a crop that can be sold for more than the land cost, distance of land to market is critical because the cost of transporting varies by crop (city in center, then perishable garden products and milk, then timber, then various crops and finally pasture)
Carl Sauer
influential geographer (the same one who coined the term "Cultural Landscape") who wrote about the early dispersal of Homo sapiens in the Old World, and the origins and prehistoric spread of agriculture. His work included environments and regionalizing environmental zones and domestication
luxury crops
non-subsistence crops such as tea, chocolate, coffee, and tobacco. We don't need them to sustain life, but we like them. Not necessarily the same as a speciality crop, which can just be a crop that a region chooses to specialize in
Agricultural Revolution
The time when human beings first domesticated plants and animals and no longer relied entirely on hunting and gathering.
The deliberate effort to modify a portion of Earth's surface through the cultivation of crops and raising of livestock for sustenance or economic gain.
Aquaculture (aquafarming)
The cultivation of seafood under controlled conditions.
The capture of wild fish and other seafood living in waters.
Food Security
Physical, social, and economic access at all times to safe and nutritious food sufficient to meet dietary needs and food preferences for an active and healthy life.
Genetically Modified Organism (GMO)
A living organism that possesses a novel combination of genetic material obtained through the use of modern biotechnology.
Seed of a cereal grass.
No tillage
A farming practice that leaves all of the soil undisturbed and the entire residue of the previous year's harvest left untouched on the fields.
Mixed Crop and Livestock Farming
Commercial farming characterized by integration of the crops and livestock; most of the crops are fed to animals rather than consumed directly by humans.
Capturing fish faster than they can reproduce.
The Malay word for wet rice, increasingly used to describe a flooded field.
Prime Agricultural Land
The most productive farmland.
Ridge Tillage
A system of planting crops on ridge tops in order to reduce farm production costs and promote greater soil conservation.
A flooded field for growing rice.
A patch of land cleared for planting through slashing and burning.
Dietary energy consumption that is continuously below the minimum requirement for maintaining a healthy life and carrying out light physical activity.
Wet Rice
Rice planted on dry land in a nursery and then moved to a deliberately flooded field to promote growth.
Cereal Grain
A grass that yields grain for food.
Any plant gathered from a field as a harvest during a particular season.
Dairy Farm
A form of commercial agriculture that specializes in the production of milk and other dairy products.
Dietary energy consumption
The amount of food that an individual consumes, measured in kilocalories (calories in the US)
Value-added specialty foods
adding value with extra processing or marketing