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Sociology Ch. 12
Terms in this set (71)
is a collection of groups that compete to meet their own objectives
is when groups do this through established governmental channels
The state refers to
a political body organized for governmental and civil rule
Power is the ability
to get others to do what you want, even against their will
is a legitimated form of power.
citizenship as a radical idea
In a Democracy
Power to rule comes from the consent of the ruled.
Democratic states are organized into bureaucracies.
Authority comes from legal codes.
Citizenship means that the people can vote for their representatives and they have rights and responsibilities as citizens
Dictatorships: the seizure of power
Characterized by totalitarian rule, where every aspect of social life is controlled by the state
Conflict and war are seen as both natural states and methods of human betterment.
Totalitarian regimes are ruled by a single individual or a small group.
Those in charge rule without the consent of those being ruled.
Dictatorships celebrate a cult of masculinity - organize public life around men, punish anti-masculinist practices
The United States has a two-party system, as opposed
to multi- or single-party systems.
Political Parties and Elections
are typically seen as the liberal party
are typically seen as the conservative party
Demographics and Voting Patterns:
very few people in the US actually vote, even in Presidential elections
Political Action Committees
private groups organized to advance a given political perspective and/or candidate. Provide 'soft money.'
The Media and the Political Process
The media influence what people consider "important political issues" - agent of socialization.
The media work to identify who is responsible for social conflicts and problems.
Through media concentration, wealthy and powerful people have more access to setting the political agenda and creating news which reflects their interests.
Media and government, media and wealthy are symbiotic.
Media as a challenge to the status quo:
There is no way to guarantee the delivery or the acceptance of the messages of elites.
The media can be used to challenge the status quo.
Despites the attempts of elites to encode given messages into the media, people often decode those messages in very different ways.
is the idea that the powerful competing interest groups balance each other out
idea that there is general agreement on core values and groups have roughly equal power
not really pluralism. A few elites hold power.
C. Wright Mills's (1956) Power Elite Theory holds
that power is concentrated in a small number of people who control
Both the pluralism and power elite perspectives provide
beneficial explanations, while also containing logical shortcomings
avoids questions of power and assumes the state is a neutral institution
Power elite theory:
assumes that the power elite share a worldview and interests, and that they are untouchable
When authority rests in the hands of the state, it maintains order through
its claim to the legitimate use of violence in a given territory
War occurs when nations use their military to
attempt to impose their will on others outside of their nation or within its nation (civil war
Terrorism typically refers
to non-government actors engaging in acts of violence against noncombatants in order to influence politics
political relationships that involve broad geographic areas, including the globe as a whole
A nation is
a group of people who share similar cultural, religious, ethnic, and linguistic characteristics.
refers to a group of people who have been dispersed from their homeland who share a collective memory - e.g. Jews and Israel
combines the nation with a geographic and political structure
is the social system involved in the production and distribution of goods and services
Sociologists are concerned with both
the economic behavior of individuals and the economy as a whole - its basic components and the ways they interrelate
The key development in the emergence of the modern economy.
Introduced the factory system of production where goods were mass produced, deskilling, division of labor
Scientific Management (Taylorism)
The application of scientific principles and methods to management.
Separated the conception of work from its execution, alienation, deskilling.
The modern mass-production system, characterized by assembly lines; mass production of homogenous products; reliance on inflexible technologies; use of Tayloristic, standardized work routines; economies of scale; and the creation of a mass market for products.
Associated with smaller production runs to meet demand for more specialized products, more flexible machinery, more skilled workers, less reliance on economies of scale, and more differentiated markets.
Extreme variety in consumer automobile choices. Other examples include food, beer, clothing.
An economic system oriented to the collective, rather than the private ownership of the means of production.
Control of the economy assumed to lead to control of politics and other institutions
Basically, a more centralized and organized version of communism.
An effort by society to plan and organize production consciously and rationally so that all members of society benefit.
Societies with socialist elements and strong social welfare programs.
Goal is to provide for welfare of all citizens.
Emphasis on economy that efficient and fair.
Programs structured and run purposefully and rationally.
Examples - national health care plans, Social Security and Medicare retirement benefits, unemployment benefits, poverty alleviation, parental leave, child care subsidies, tax breaks for the non-wealthy.
Increases costs of production, lowers human suffering and inequality.
US has many socialist elements, but not as many other developed nations.
An economic system based on market competition, private ownership of the means of production, and a profit motive
- many small firms
- very few large firms
Refers to the decline of manufacturing as well as a corresponding increase in various types of service industries.
Factors in Deindustrialization
Aging technology replaced with automation
Expansion of globalization and competition
The rise of the consumer society - we want more stuff and we want it cheap.
Rise of the service sector - we spend more money on services like education, healthcare, entertainment, etc
Decline of American Labor Unions
Between 1900 through the end of World War II in 1945, the percentage of the labor force that belonged to labor unions rose from 3% to 23%.
In 2010, 11.9% of the U.S. labor force belonged to labor unions.
The Post-Industrial Society
The manufacture of goods has been replaced by an increase in service work.
Teachers, lawyers, physicians, salespeople, cashiers, financial advisor, technology consultants, etc.
is defined as being economically active and in the labor force, able and willing to work, seeking employment, but unable to find a job
involves being in jobs below ones training, being an involuntary part-time worker, and working in jobs that do not fully occupy the worker
is a highly complex process involving the interrelationships among consumer objects and services, consumers, the consumption process, and consumption sites
Cathedrals of consumption:
the large and lavish consumption sites created in the last half of the 20th century.
Consumption is a hallmark
of postmodern societies, as production and work were the hallmarks of modern societies.
is best thought of as consumerism - an obsession with consumption
is a means of escape from the obligations associated with work and family involving social activities that are uncoerced
societal competition through establlished governmental channels to advance a position or enact a policy to benefit the groups members
political sysyem in which people within a given state vote to choose their leaders and in some cases vote on legislation
political system in which people as a whole body do not actually rule themselves but rather have some say in who will best represent them in the state
a political system in which people directly affected by a given decision have a say in that decison
the people represented by a given state most often born within its territories
the idea that people of a given state can vote for their representatives within the state, but also that they have access to rights and responsibilities
states that are usually totalitaria and ruled either by a single individual or by a small group of people
cult of masculinity
a social practice that organizeds political life and the public sphere around men and punishes perceived deficiencies in masculinity in men
two party system
political system in which two parties hold nearly all positions of political power in a given nation
political system in which more than two parties enjoy public support andhold political office in a nation
single party systems
political system in which the ruling party outlaws, or heavily restricts opossing parties
members of a politcal party within the US two party system typically seen as the liberal party
members of politcal party withing the us two party systems seen as the conservative party
separation of powers
the separation and counterbalancing of different branches of gov. so that no one branch of gov. can wield too much power
communities that are socially constructed by those who see themselves as part of them
states that seek both to run their economic markets efficiently as capitalism does and to do so more equitably which capitalism does not do
a value laden term indicating an obsessioin with consumption
borrowing more than one should, thereby owing more than one will be able to pay back
the globalization of money and finance
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