Biology-Download 13 Technology and Variation

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DNA fingerprinting
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4 examples of genetic engineering1) pest resistance in plants 2) altering bacteria to eat waste 3) thrombolytic therapy 4) copy of protein mixed with snow-making gun forms matrix for perfect snow flakescoronary arteriessupply blood to the heart3 organisms we use to mass produce different gene products?-bacteria -yeast -nonhuman mammalsFactor 8produced in mammalian cells; missing factor in clotting in people with hemophiliatissue plasminogen activator (TPA)clotbusterporsinepigbovinecowhumulintherapeutic hormone that is human insulin produced by bacteria; became the first recombinant drug approved by the FDADNA technologybeing used increasingly in disease diagnosiscombination vaccineprovide immunity to multiple diseases with one vaccinevaccineharmless variant of a pathogen that is given to an individual to stimulate the immune systemthrombolytic therapyaka clot busters; break clots up which increases blood flow to the heart musclewhat do fingerprints have that are different in everyone because they are formed from response to stress in the uterus?stress ridges; this is phenotypicgene therapymay one day be used to treat both genetic diseases and nongenetic disorders, but progress is slowPCRpolymerase chain reaction; can be used to clone a small sample of DNA quickly, producing enough copies for analysis; used to amplify DNA sequences; its an enzymegenomethe total genetic content in a haploid set of chromosomesHuman Genome Projectbegan in 1990 and involved the genetic and physical mapping of chromosomes, followed by DNA sequencing6 goals of HGP1) identify all genes in human DNA 2) determine sequences of base pairs 3) store this information in data bases 4) improve tools for data analysis 5) transfer related technologies to private sector 6) address ethical, legal, and social issues associated with projectnoncoding DNAthought to be junk DNA; now thought to be responsible for which portions of the DNA are expressed; about 97% of our genome is noncodinggenomicscompares whole genomesproteomicsstudy of the proteins produced by a genome3 reasons why proteomics are complicated1) different proteins are produced in different parts of the body 2) different proteins are produced in different stages of life 3) different proteins produced in different environmental conditionsGMOsgenetically modified organismstransgenic organismshave genes from other organisms inserted in to their genomesexample of transgenic plantgolden riceHow is golden rice a transgenic plant?daffodil genes are inserted into rice; creates betakerotene which is precursor to vitamin A and is helpful for eyesightbenefits of biotechnology1) increase in crop productivity 2) enhanced crop protection 3) improvements in food processing 4) increased nutritional value 5) better flavor 6) fresher produce 7) environmental benefitsrisks of biotechnology1) allergens and toxins 2) antiobiotic resistance 3) potential gene escape and development of superweeds 4) impact on non-taret species 5) insecticide resistance 6) loss of biodiversitymutationonly source of brand new allelessexual recombinationshuffles alleleswhere does a genetic mutation have to occur to pass onto future generations?cell producing gametespolymorphismdifferent forms of expressed characteristicsmorphsorganisms that express polymorphismneutral variationsvariations that don't provide advantage or disadvantageis the loss of variation good or bad?bad-less variation means less adaptability to challenges and changes in environmentbottlenecking eventanything that limits some of the populationMRSAmethicillin resistant staphylococcus aureusnosocomialmeans that the infection is hospital related and emerged in hopsitalsstaph entering through open wound can be two thingscommunity associated (CA) or nosocomialprimary causes of MRSA1) unneccessary, excessive antibiotic use in humans 2) antibiotics in food and water 3) germ mutationrisk factors for nosocomial infections-current or recent hospitalization -residing in long-term care facility -use of invasive devices -recent antibiotic userisk factors of community associated-young age -participating in contact sport -sharing towels or athletic equipment -having a weakened immune system -living in crowded or unsanitary conditions -association with health care workersbest ways to prevent yourself from CA-keep personal items personal -keep wounds covered -sanitize linens -wash your hands -if you have suspicious skin lesion, get it tested