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99 terms

Theater Test 2

STUDY
PLAY
screen projection
a picture of drawing is projected on a screen
stage management team
the practice of organizing and coordinating a theatrical production
-includes a head stage manager and one or more assistant stage managers
wagon
something mounted on wheels or casters by means of which scenery is moved on and off stage
thumbnail sketches
preliminary sketches and rough plans to provide a basis for furthur discussions about the scenic elements
model
small scale and three-dimensional-made by the designer that the director uses to help stage the show
aesthetic distance
physical or psychological separation or detachment of audience from dramatic action, usually considered necessary for artistic illusion (fictionalized story of what happened, pull out only some truth)
basic elements of design
1- scenery
2- costume
3- lighting
4- sound
balance
the distribution of the visual weight of objects, colors, texture and space
-symmetrical: elements used on one side of the design are similar to those on the other side
-asymmetrical: the sides are different but are still together
rhythm
created when one or more elements of design are used repeatedly to create a feeling of organized movement
scrim
special type of scenery, a gauze or cloth screen (towards the front or apron of stage)
run through
rehearsal in which the cast goes through the entire text of the play in the order that it will be performed
technical rehearsal
rehearsal at which all the design and technical elements are brought together
dress rehearsal
rehearsal in which a play is performed as it will be for the public, including all the scenery, costumes, and technical effects
lighting designer
knows which elements or qualities of light will achieve the objectives of lighting design
gobo
template in a theater lighting instrument that determines the shape and arrangement of the beam or pool of light thrown by the instrument
-Ex: pattern could result in stripes, leaves on trees, the outline of a windowpane, or the like
show boat
traveled along the waterways performing theater
Golden rule of Design
all designs are purposeful, even when not intended to look so
cross fade
one set of lights comes down while another comes up
blackout
total darkening of the stage
objectives of lighting design
1- provide visibility
2- help establish time and place
3- help create mood
4- reinforce the style of the production
5- provide focus onstage and create visual composition
6- establish rhythm and visual movement
objectives of costume design
1- help establish the tone and style of a production
2- indicate the historical period of a play and the locale in which it is set
3- indicate the nature of individual characters or groups in a play: their stations in life, their occupations, their personalities
4- show relationships among characters: separate major characters from minor ones, contrast one group with another
5- meet the needs of individual performers: make it possible for an actor to move freely in a costume; allow performer to dance or engage in a sword fight; allow performers to change quickly from one costume to another
6- be consistent with a production as a whole, esp with other visual elements
pacing (directing term)
how the play moves along, how fast or slow it is moving
light or sound cue
any prearranged signal, such as the last words in a speech, a piece of business, or any action or lighting change, that indicates to a performer or stage manager that it is time to preoceed to the next line of action
job of a director
responsible for overall unity of a production and for coordinating the work of contributing artists
the American director
the equivalent of the British producer and the French metteur-en-scene
stage pictures
visual composition, how an entire scene onstage will appear to the audience
casting a play
assigning roles to performers in a production; usually done by director
turn table/revolve
a circle, set into the floor, which is rotated mechanically or electronically to bring one set into view as another disappears
ground plan
a floor plan outlining the various levels on the stage and indicating the placement of all scenery, furniture, doors, windows, etc
dramaturge
literary manager or dramatic advisor for a theater company
set dressing
all decorative items on stage used to enhance the effect of the scene (not usually touched or used by actors)
preview performance
the play is performed for the first time before audiences; dress rehearsals for invited audiences
stage manager
person who coordinates all the rehearsals and the actual running of a performance
environmental sounds
noises from everyday life that provide background sound in a production
table work
rehearsal time, the first two weeks of productions preliminary works; sit at a table and discuss theme, social importance, etc.
set designer
responsible for stage set, which can run the gamut from a bare stage furnished only with stools and orange crates to the most elaborate large-scale production
upstage
stage farthest from audience
downstage
stage nearest the audience
stage right
performer's right side of stage, audience's left
stage left
performer's left side of stage, audience's right
costume designer
responsible for selecting, and in many cases creating, the outfits and accessories worn by performers
elements of scene design
1- line
2- mass
3- composition
4- texture
5- color
line
outline of silhouette of elements on stage
mass
overall bulk or weight of scenic elements
composition
balance or arrangement of elements
texture
the "feel" projected by surfaces and fabrics
color
shadings and contrasts of color combinations
realism
an attempt to present onstage people and events corresponding to those in everyday life
light plot
detailed outline or diagram showing where each lighting instrument is placed in relationship to the stage
area lights (floodlights)
lighting instrument used for large or general area lighting
strip (border) light
these lights bathe in a section of the stage or scenery in a smooth, diffused wash of light
-shines upwards
focus
aiming light on a particular area of the stage
follow spot light
large, powerful spotlight with a sharp focus and narrow beam that is used to follow principle performers as they move about the stage
composition
how lighted areas are arranged onstage relative to each other
intensity
brightness; controlled by a dimmer
dimmers
device for changing lighting intensity smoothly and at varying rates
gel/color filters
used to alter color; short for gelatin - the cellophane of which it was originally mae
top down lighting
lighting that comes from directly overhead
soft flat
backdrop or background made of canvas
hard flat (movie/hollywood flat)
consists of a thin, solid material, called lauan, mountain on a wooden or hollow metal frame; tend to act as real walls
properties (props)
objects that are used by performers on stage or are necessary to complete a set
silhouette
part of the first element of costume design
-lines can be straight or jagged
-elements exaggerated
technical director
person who oversees all technical aspects of a theater production, especially the building, painting and installation of scenery and related elements
design components
1- line
2- shape
3- movement
4- light
5- color
scale/proportion
relative size or proportion used to determine measurements or dimensions within a design
harmony
a harmonious state of things in general and of their properties (as of colors and sounds)
contrast
rather than moving in linear fashion, the action alternates between different kinds of elements
pattern
a predictable combination in repitition
proscenium arch
arch or frame surrounding the stage opening in a box or picture stage
fourth wall
pretense that in a proscenium arch theater the audience is looking into a room through an invisible wall
theater convention
the agreement between the actor and the audience, that if what the actor is doing is believable, the audience will believe it
playing the x
going from corner to corner of the stage (mostly for thrust stages) so the entire audience can see you (entrance to entrance, pathway makes an X)
flexible staging
area where you can move stage or seating, for different design of the stage
rendering
the more complex sketch, usually in color, the designer makes after the director and designer have decided on an idea and a rough design
Broadway Theater
-refers to theatrical performances presented in one of the 40 professional theaters with 500 or more seats located in the Theatre District centered along Broadway
-represents the highest level of commercial theater in the English speaking world
Off-Broadway theater
-theaters smaller than Broadway theaters (most had fewer than 200 seats)
-less expensive than Broadway, offered more opportunity for producing serious classics and experimental works
-soon became expensive and institutionalized
Off-Off Broadway theater
-result of Off-Broadway's development, small independent producing groups had to develop another forum
-shows produced wherever inexpensive space is available (churches, lofts, warehouses, garages)
-characterized by low prices and a wide variety of offerings
Cyclorama (Cyc/Sike)
toward the back (upstage), no seams in either, one large expensive piece of cloth
alley stage
tennis court theater; audience sits on 2 opposing sides of the stage
Ethel Waters
first female performer to be on Broadway, very successful, made 12,000 dollars a week
-singer of the song "Supper Time"
Bert Williams
first African American performer to earn his entire living off performing
-first to appear in Broadway show as a star opposite white entertainers
-famous for song, "Nobody"
strip light
light that shines upwards
Oklahoma
first musical that was groundbreaking, used both music and dancing, first time choreographer used both to move the plot along
black box stage
one with a simple, unadorned design that makes it an extremely flexible space
color
light reflected off objects
-hue (name)
-value (how light/dark)
-intensity (how bright/dull)
shape
a closed line, flat but can express length and width
movement
the path the viewer's eye takes through the artwork
designer's model
scale model of the scenery, renderings, paint elevations and scale construction drawings
Ziegfeld's objective as a director
created an American formula of entertainment that featured:
-songs, dancers, comedy routines, novelty acts
-glorified the American Girl (beauty above all else)
vaudeville
a series of variety acts - music, sketches, juggling, animal acts
-short, often comedic
-major decline after the talkies became popular
minstrel shows
variety shows that featured white performers wearing blackface, and caricaturing African Americans
Fanny Brice
associated with Ziegfeld, headlined in Ziegfeld Follies
-featured singing "My Man" - became her big hit and signature song
-famous for performance of Jewish characters with Yiddish accents (Berlin's song on his fiddle)
-prat falls and raucousness
screen projection
a picture or drawing is projected on a screen either from in front (as in an ordinary movie theater) or from behind
motivated sounds
sounds called for in the script come from recognizable sources
Gillbert and Sullivan
british composers lyricists whose popularity was in American
-songs mostly soliloquies (monologue like talking to yourself, don't move the dramatic action forward)
-first American production at Boston Theater, first Broadway production at Standard Theater
-HMS Pinafore, Pirates of Penzance, Milkado
composers
come up with music
lyricists
come up with words
Ziegfeld Follies
series of elaborate theatrical productions on Broadway, later became a radio program
operetta
a romantic musical piece featuring melodic solos, duets, and choruses interspersed with spoken dialogue