AP Language Rhetorical Terms
Terms in this set (107)
The repetition of the same sound or letter at the beginning of consecutive words or syllables
an indirect reference, often to another text or an historic event
an extended comparison between two seemingly dissimilar things
the repetition of words at the beginning of successive clauses
a short account of an interesting event
explanatory or critical notes added to a text
the repetition of words in an inverted order to sharpen a contrast
parallel structure that juxtaposes contrasting ideas
a short, astute statement of a general truth
a word or phrase that renames a nearby noun or pronoun
the use of words common to an earlier time period; antiquated language
a statement put forth and supported by evidence
a diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the realtionship among the speaker, the subject, and the audience
an emphatic statement; declaration.
a belief or statement taken for granted without proof
leaving out conjunctions between words, phrases, clauses.
the speaker's position on a subject as revealed through their tone
One's listener or readership; those to whom a speech or piece of writing
A reliable, respected source—someone with knowledge.
Prejudice or predisposition toward one side of a subject or issue.
Identifying a part of a piece of writing as being derived from a source.
An assertion, usually supported by evidence.
A careful reading that is attentive to organization, figurative language,
sentence structure, vocabulary, and other literary and structural elements
of a text
An informal or conversational use of language.
Shared beliefs, values, or positions.
A sentence that includes one independent clause and at least
one dependent clause
A reluctant acknowledgment or yielding
That which is implied by a word, as opposed to the word's literal
Words, events, or circumstances that help determine meaning.
Grammatical equivalence between parts of a sentence, often
through a coordinating conjunction such as and, or but.
A challenge to a position; an opposing argument
worth of belief, trustworthy
An independent clause followed by subordinate clauses or
phrases that supply additional detail
a sentence that makes a sentence
reasoning from general to specific
The literal meaning of a word; its dictionary definition.
A double-column journal in which one writes a quotation in
one column and reflections on that quotation in the other column.
Bibliographic information about the sources used in a piece of
Mournful over what has passed or been lost; often used to describe tone
a brief witty statement
A Greek term referring to the character of a person; one of Aristotle's
three rhetorical appeals
explication of text
Explanation of a text's meaning through an analysis of all
of its constituent parts, including the literary devices used; also called close
information that is true or demonstrable
The use of tropes or figures of speech; going beyond literal
meaning to achieve literary effect
figure of speech
An expression that strives for literary effect rather than conveying
a literal meaning
A word, phrase, or clause that does not form a full sentence
urging, or strongly encouraging
exaggeration for the purpose of emphasis
Vivid use of language that evokes a reader's senses (sight, smell, taste,
a sentence that requests or commands
reasoning from specific to general
A sentence in which the verb precedes the subject.
A contradiction between what is said and what is meant; incongruity between
action and result
Placement of two things side by side for emphasis
A Greek term that means "word"; an appeal to logic; one of Aristotle's
three rhetorical appeals
A figure of speech or trope through which one thing is spoken of as
though it were something else, thus making an implicit comparison.
Use of an aspect of something to represent the whole
A word, phrase, or clause that qualifies or describes another word,
phrase, or clause
Retelling an event or series of events
Turning a verb or adjective into a noun
An aspect of context; the cause or reason for writing.
An all-knowing, usually third-person narrator.
A figure of speech that combines two contradictory terms
The relative speed or slowness with which a story is told or an idea is
A statement that seems contradictory but is actually true.
The repetition of similar grammatical or syntactical patterns
A piece that imitates and exaggerates the prominent features of another;
used for comic effect or ridicule
A Greek term that refers to suffering but has come to be associated with
broader appeals to emotion; one of Aristotle's three rhetorical appeals
A sentence that builds toward and ends with the main clause
The speaker, voice, or character assumed by the author of a piece of
Assigning lifelike characteristics to inanimate objects
An argument against an idea, usually regarding philosophy, politics, or
The deliberate use of a series of conjunctions.
Two parts of a syllogism. The concluding sentence of a
syllogism takes its predicate from the major premise and its subject from the
A word used to replace a noun or noun phrase.
A negative term for writing designed to sway opinion rather than
One's intention or objective in a speech or piece of writing
To discredit an argument, particularly a counterargument
The study of effective, persuasive language use; according to Aristotle,
use of the "available means of persuasion
Patterns of organization developed to achieve a specific purpose;
modes include but are not limited to narration, description, comparison
and contrast, cause and effect, definition, exemplification, classification and
division, process analysis, and argumentation
A question asked more to produce an effect than to summon
A diagram that represents a rhetorical situation as the relationship
among the speaker, the subject, and the audience
An ironic, sarcastic, or witty composition that claims to argue for something,
but actually argues against it.
A pattern of words or sentence construction used for rhetorical effect.
The arrangement of independent and dependent clauses
into known sentence constructions—such as simple, compound, complex, or
Using a variety of sentence patterns to create a desired effect
A figure of speech that uses "like" or "as" to compare two things
A statement containing a subject and predicate; an independent
A book, article, person, or other resource consulted for information.
A term used for the author, speaker, or the person whose perspective
(real or imagined) is being advanced in a speech or piece of writing
A logical fallacy that involves the creation of an easily refutable position;
misrepresenting, then attacking an opponent's position
The distinctive qualitiy of speech or writing created by the selection and
arrangement of words and figures of speech
In rhetoric, the topic addressed in a piece of writing
Created by a subordinating conjunction, a clause that modifies
an independent clause
The dependence of one syntactical element on another in a
A form of deductive reasoning in which the conclusion is supported
by a major and minor premise
Combining or bringing together two or more elements to produce
something more complex
The central idea in a work to which all parts of the work refer
A statement of the central idea in a work, may be explicit or
The speaker's attitude toward the subject or audience
A sentence, most often appearing at the beginning of a paragraph,
that announces the paragraph's idea and often unites it with the work's
Artful diction; the use of language in a nonliteral way; also called a figure
Lack of emphasis in a statement or point; restraint in language
often used for ironic effect
In grammar, a term for the relationship between a verb and a noun (active
or passive voice). In rhetoric, a distinctive quality in the style and tone of
A construction in which one word (usually a verb) modifies or
governs—often in different, sometimes incongruent ways—two or more
words in a sentence