95 terms

Practice test Questions ANA 109

STUDY
PLAY

Terms in this set (...)

which of the following is not found in the dermis?
a. fibroblasts
b. melanocytes
c. free nerve endings
d. glands
B. melanocytes
a good example of a positive feedback mechanism would be...
a. an enhancement of labor contraction by oxytocin
b. blood pressure regulation
c. blood glucose regulation
d. all of the above
a. an enhancement of labor contraction by oxytocin
which of the following types of skin cancer is the most dangerous because it rapidly metastasizes?
a. malignant melanoma
malignant melanoma
a male patient comes running into the ER and screams for assistance he appears to have a burn that extends to the hypodermis based on its depth you can tell that this is a...
a. 1st degree burn
b. 2nd degree burn
c. 3rd degree burn
d. 4th degree burn
c. 3rd degree burn
which of the following allows cells to recognize each other?
a. lipid bilayer
b. glycocalyx
c. pattern of peripheral proteins
d. cell receptor types
b. glycocalyx
which of the following tissue types responds quickly to changes in membrane potential meaning which of the following is excitable?
a. skeletal tissue
b. nervous tissue
c. cardiac tissue
d. A and C
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
the material that lies between the layer of epithelial cells and its underlying connective tissue is called the...
a. matrix
b. ground substance
c. collagen layer
d. endothelium
e. basement membrane
e. basement membrane
in cystic fibrosis the cilia become embedded in sticky mucus due to...
a. misplaced chloride pumps
b. a functional power stroke
c. a forceful recovery stroke
d. an overactive mucus gland
e. A and D
a. misplaced chloride pumps
in the picture below carrier molecules are transporting a sodium using the information provided what is this image illustrating?
a. secondary active transport
b. osmosis
c. active transport
d. receptor mediated endocytosis
e. facilitated diffusion
...
_______ can be thought of as cell eating and is practiced frequently by white blood cells which use it to neutralize bacteria and viruses in dead or dying cells.
a. pinocytosis
b. exocytosis
c. phagocytosis
d. hydrolysis
e. B and C
c. phagocytosis
which of the following cell types are supportive cells for neurons?
a. fibroblasts
b. axon keratinocytes
c. neuroglial cells
d. mast cells
c. neuroglial cells
the single layer of cells that make up the stratum basale of the epidermis contain all of the following cell types except..
a. melanocytes
b.keratinocytes
c. merkle cells
d. fibroblasts
d. fibroblasts
you are reviewing histology tissues and decide to look at a slide through a microscope you notice that many of the cells in the bottom layer of this tissue appear to be undergoing different stages of mitosis you also notice many layers of flattened cells above this layer that lead to a free surface which of the following types of tissue are you viewing through the microscope?
a. skeletal muscle
b. transitional epithelium of a full bladder
c. epidermis of the skin
d. simple cuboidal epithelium in the kidney
c. epidermis of the skin
which of the following is not considered to be a basic life process?
a. anabolism
b. pathology
c. growth responsiveness
d. catabolism
b. pathology
if you were to cut a body in the coronal (aka frontal plane) which of the following statements would be true?
a. the body would be divided down the middle into right and left equal halves
b. the body would be divided at right angles
c. the body would be divided into superior and inferior sections
d. the body would be divided into front and back sections
e. the body would be divided alongside the midline
d. the body would be divided into front and back sections
what organ is in both the epigastric region and the left hypochondriac region?
a. small intestine
b. gallbladder
c. liver
d. spleen
e. stomach
e. stomach
which letter is pointing to a glycolipid?
how could you explain that a slight paper cut to the skin does not bleed?
a. the cut is only affecting cellulite
b. the cut is only affecting the epidermis
c. it missed the reticular region of the epidermis
d. langerhans cells assist in the clotting of the blood
e. none of the above the skin always bleeds
b. the cut is only affecting the epidermis
where can you find membranous epithelium?
a. skin
b. intestines
c. endothelium
d. respiratory tract
e. all of the above
...
which of the following is found in the small intestines, the lower portion of the digestive tract?
a. simple squamous
b. simple cuboidal
c. simple columnar
d. A and B
e. B and C
...
which of the following produces the least viscous (which means thick secretion)?
a. sebaceous glands
b. eccrine glands
c. ceriminous glands
d. appocrine glands
b. eccrine glands
which of the following factors can increase the rate of diffusion?
a. the steepness of the concentration gradient
b. the greater membrane surface area
c. the higher the temperature
d. all of the above
d. all of the above
how does cartilage differ from other connective tissues?
a. other connective tissues have widely spaced cells whereas cartilage has cells tightly packed
b. cartilage is avascular while almost all other connective tissues have a rich blood supply
c. other connective tissues line body cavities but other tissues cover cartilage tissue
d. cartilage tissue is not actually considered to be a connective tissue it is an epithelial tissue
e. cartilage tissue has vert little extracellular matrix while other connective tissues have a large amount of extracellular matrix
b. cartilage is avascular while almost all other connective tissues have a rich blood supply
pregnancy, obesity, and rapid growth can cause stretch marks or striae. striae are a result of tears in the collagen fibers in the _______.
a. papillary layer of the dermis
b. reticular layer of the dermis
c. stratum lucidum of the epidermis
d. stratum corneum of the epidermis
e. hypodermis
b. reticular layer of the dermis
all of the following are characteristics of adipose tissue except:
a. packed tightly together
b. composed of adipocytes
c. stores nutrients and energy
d. insulates and protects
a. packed tightly together
which of the following glands secretes in response to environmental heat and exercise? do these glands secrete into hair follicles?
a. apocrine sweat glands; yes
b. apocrine sweat glands; no
c. eccrine sweat glands; yes
d. eccrine sweat glands; no
e. sebaceous glands; yes
...
which of the following is a true statement regarding sebaceous glands?
a. sebaceous glands are a form of sudiferous gland
b. sebaceous glands secrete an oily substance called sebum
c. sebaceous glands are modified mammary glands
d. both a & b
...
a patient comes in to the hospital with very high blood pressure. high blood pressure is partially a result of ____________ in vessel lumen diameter. this lumen diameter change ___________ hydrostatic pressure.
a. an increase; decreases
b. a decrease; increases
c. a decrease; decreases
d. an increase; increases
...
which of the following histological images depicts the fiber and cellular composition of dense regular connective tissue?
...
____________ cells are thin, flat, and often have a bulldog where the nucleus is.
a. cuboidal
b. squamous
c. stellate
d. spheroid
b. squamous
Know what all the different kinds of tissues look like
...
an individual has been in a tragic motor vehicle accident and has been ejected from the vehicle because they were not wearing their seatbelt. the person is conscious, complaining of left hypochondriac pain, and when you visualize the area it has significant swelling and is painful to palpation. Which of the following organs is located in that area and might be of concern?
a. appendix
b. urinary bladder
c. brain
d. spleen
e. liver
d. spleen
a 24 year old female presents to the emergency room complaining of the following symptoms: acute lower right abdominal pain, rated at a 9 out of 10 on the pain scale, that she characterizes as burning and stabbing in quality. she is not having difficulty breathing. you take her temperature and notice she has a very high fever of 104 degrees and high blood pressures. she has clear lung sounds. which of the following is most likely the correct diagnosis?
a. pulmonary embolism (blood clot in the lungs)
b. appendicits
c. gallstones located in the gallbladder
d. heart burn (esophageal pain as a result of gastric juice regurgitation)
...
which of the following is NOT true of phospholipids?
a. the head group is polar
b. the molecule is an important part of cell membranes
c. the tail groups are non polar
d. they are a major energy storage lipid in the body
...
epithelial tissue:
a. binds organs together, stores energy, and participates in body defenses
b. covers body surfaces, lines cavities, and forms glands
c. produces the physical force for body movements
d. detects and responds to changes in internal and external body conditions
...
which of the following relationships is false?
a. epidermis is stratified squamous epithelium
b. bladder is transitional epithelium
c. alveoli (tiny sacs that make up the lung) are pseudostratified ciliated columnar epithelium
d. capillaries (distal aspects of blood vessels) are simple squamous epithelium
...
which of the following is not a function of the integumentary system?
a. filters blood
b. slows water loss
c. synthesizes vitamin d
d. houses sensory receptors
...
which of the following is true about the serous membrane?
a. the serous membrane secretes serous fluid
b. the serous membrane decreases friction between organs
c. the serous membrane has a parietal and visceral component
d. a and b
e. all of the above
...
skeletal muscle differs from smooth muscle because it is:
a. voluntary
b. cylindrical
c. striated
d. multi-nucleated
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
which of the following best describes this image?
a. transitional epithelium
b. simple squamous epithelium
c. simple columnar epithelium
d. pseudo-stratified columnar epithelium
e. stratified columnar epithelium
...
motile cilia are found in the:
a. inner ear
b. kidneys
c. respiratory tract
d. retina
e. nasal cavity
c. respiratory tract
a red blood cell is placed in pure, distilled water, which is hypotonic. what would happen?
a. the cell would cell and burst
b. the cell would shrink
c. the cell would swell then shrink as equilibrium is reached
d. the cell would neither shrink nor swell
e. the cell would maintain a low hydrostatic pressure
...
which of the following is/are true?
a. stratified epithelium has at least 2 layers of cells above the basement membrane
b. epithelia are avascular
c. keratinizing stratified squamous epithelium has nuclei in the cells of all layers
d. a & b
e. b & c
...
which type of connective tissue is found in intervertebral discs?
a. osseous tissue
b. areolar connective tissue
c. hyaline cartilage
d. elastic cartilage
e. fibrocartilage
...
_____________ stem cells have the potential to develop into any type of fully differentiated human cell.
a. totipotent
b. pluripotent
c. multipotent
d. unipotent
a. totipotent
the serous membrane that lines the body wall that contains the lungs is known as:
a. visceral pleura
b. visceral pericardium
c. parietal pericardium
d. parietal pleura
d. parietal pleura
collagen fibers are found in all of the following locations except:
a. tendons
b. transitional epithelium
c. bone
d. cartilage
b. transitional epithelium
microvilli are characterized by all of the following except:
a. they appear as if they have a brushed border
b. their primary function is absorption
c. they have a chloride pump
d. they increase the surface area of the cell
c. they have a chloride pump
all of the following are functions of connective tissue except:
a. binds organs together
b. stores energy reserves as fat
c. helps provide immunity
d. compartmentalization of the body
e. all of the above are functions of connective tissue so there are no exceptions !!
e. all of the above are functions of connective tissue so there are no exceptions !!
you are a nurse working with a plastic surgeon. today, one of your vain patients is getting collagen injections in her lips. you know that collagen is naturally produced in ____________ by ____________.
a. connective tissue; mast cells
b. epithelium; keratinocytes
c. epithelium; fibroblasts
d. connective tissue; fibroblasts
d. connective tissue; fibroblasts
which cell type is almost always associated with goblet cells and cilia?
a. transitional epithelium
b. stratified epithelium
c. simple cuboidal epithelium
d. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
e. b & d
d. pseudostratified columnar epithelium
which of the following is false regarding melanin and melanocytes?
a. people with albinism lack melanin
b. melanin is a brown pigment that absorbs UV radiation thereby protecting the DNA of epidermal cells from mutations
c. skin pigment is determined by the number of melanocytes
d. melanin is produced by melanocytes which are found the stratum basale layer of the epidermis
a. people with albinism lack melanin
two organs on the same side of the body, such as the spleen and the descending colon are:
a. distal
b. ipsilateral
c. proximal
d. contralateral
e. intermediate
b. ipsilateral
which of the following connective tissue cells produces heparin?
a. fibroblasts
b. mast cell
c. macrophage
d. white blood cells
e. none of the above
b. mast cell
all of the following are characteristics of areolar tissues except:
a. they are tightly packed fibers
b. has no more ground substance than cells
c. contains fibroblasts
d. binds epithelial cells to deeper tissues
a. they are tightly packed fibers
the theory that a large, complex system such as the human body can be understood by its simpler components is called:
a. holism
b. hedgimony
c. reductionism
d. evolution
e. natural selection
c. reductionism
which of these is the solvent in a typical body solution?
a. glucose
b. water
c. salt water
d. blood plasma
e. c & d are both good examples
b. water
which of the following terms is associated with blueness of the skin from deficiency of oxygen in the circulating blood?
a. erythmea
b. jaundice
c. hematoma
d. pallor
e. cyanosis
e. cyanosis
which of the following statements best describes the relationship between the brain to the skull?
a. the brain is superior to the skull
b. the brain is lateral to the skull
c. the brain is deep to the skull
d. the brain is superficial to the skull
c. the brain is deep to the skull
what type of membrane is found in enclosed cavities?
a. mucous
b. serous
c. cutaneous
d. all of the above
b. serous
which of the following are contractile organelles of the muscle fiber?
a. myofibrils
b. myoglobin
c. mitochondria
d. z disc
e. fasicle
a. myofibrils
articular cartilage made of ___________ and articular cartilage is associated with the ______________ site of ossification
a. hyaline cartilage; secondary site of ossification
b. elastic cartilage; primary site of ossification
c. fibrocartilage; secondary site of ossification
d. zone of resting cartilage; primary site of ossification
e. hyaline cartilage; primary site of ossification
e. hyaline cartilage; primary site of ossification
which of the following statements is true regarding fast glycolytic fibers, also known as type IIx or fast-twitch fibers found in skeletal muscle?
a. they are adapted for intense bursts of anaerobically fueled movement
b. they have abundant mitochondria
c. they contract slowly, but are resistant to fatigue
d. they contain vast quantities of myoglobin
a. they are adapted for intense bursts of anaerobically fueled movement
chondrocytes multiply in this zone of the epiphyseal plate (#mitosis)
a. zone of calcification
b. zone of bone deposition
c. zone of cell hypertrophy
d. zone of resting cartilage
e. zone of cell proliferation
e. zone of cell proliferation
where, in adults, is red marrow not found?
a. lumbar vertebrae
b. superior anterior iliac spine
c. proximal head of the femur
d. epicondyles of the humerus
e. occipital bone
d. epicondyles of the humerus
the cosmetic injection known as botox removes wrinkles by causing flaccid paralysis of superficial facial muscles. which of the following is not true about botox?
a. botox is made of botulism, a neuromuscular toxin secreted by a bacteria
b. botox blocks the release of acetylcholine, thus causing flaccid paralysis
c. botox is made of the same bacteria responsible for spoiling food, especially meat
d. botox gives glycine release in the spinal cord and causes overstimulation of the muscles
d. botox gives glycine release in the spinal cord and causes overstimulation of the muscles
in the endochondral ossification, the precursor connective tissue is ____________, which is later replaced by bone.
a. embryonic mesenchyme
b. fibrous membranes
c. transitional epithelium
d. hyaline cartilage
e. periosteum
d. hyaline cartilage
___________ is often found when two muscles are connected to one another. it is broad and flat, paper thin, it is made of all three connective tissue (ex. endomysium)
a. deep fascia
b. perimysium
c. tendon
d. fasicle
e. aponeurosis
e. aponeurosis
which arrow and associated letter points to the perforating canal?
which segment has ONLY thin filaments?
____________ is released into the cytosol, or cytoplasm of the muscle fiber, changing the shape of troponin, moving tropomyosin out of the way so that actin and myosin combine together
a. phosphate
b. norepinephrine
c. calcium
d. acetylcholine
c. calcium
which of the following structural proteins is used to reinforce the sarcolemma to the sarcomere?
a. troponin
b. tropomyosin
c. myosin
d. actin
e. dystrophin
e. dystrophin
in a herniated, ruptured, or slipped disc, the ring of _______________ called the annulus fibrosis cracks or tears and the ____________ oozes out.
a. fibrocartilage; nucleus pulposis
which of the following is an autoimmune disease?
a. gout
b. rheumatoid arthritis
c. myasthenia gravis
d. a & c
e. b & c
e. b & c
the photo below shows an athlete demonstrating a heel-drop stretch, which is important for stretching the achilles tendons and the plantar fascia. what is the movement occurring?
dorsiflexion
a pathological fracture is:
a. a break in a bone weakened by some other disease
b. a break in the bone happens repeatedly
c. a bone fracture that causes bleeding
d. a break caused by abnormal trauma to the bone
e. a fracture that always requires invasive surgery
a. a break in a bone weakened by some other disease
if circulating levels of calcium ions in the blood fall below optimum, ____________ is released to stimulate osteoclasts, which free calcium ions from bone to enter into the bloodstream.
a. calcitonin
b. vitamin d
c. vitamin k
d. parathyroid hormone
e. thyroid
d. parathyroid hormone
____________ provides hardness to bone, whereas __________ provides some degree of flexibility.
a. collagen and elastic fibers; minerals
b. calcium carbonate; calcium phosphate
c. calcium salts; proteins like collagen
d. proteins; collagen
e. collagen; calcium phosphate
c. calcium salts; proteins like collagen
what energizes the myosin head, meaning what leads the myosin head-cocking which is the action that prepares a myosin head for attaching to the actin binding site, located on the thin filament?
a. the actin filaments
b. calcium ions
c. an addition of a potassium ion to ADP
d. hydrolysis of ATP
e. attachment of a new ATP molecule
d. hydrolysis of ATP
the extraceullar matrix of osseous tissue is comprised of all of the following except:
a. hydroxyapatite
b. calcium phosphate
c. water
d. periosteum
e. epimysium
e. epimysium
osteoporosis is most common in older, menopausal women because they have reduced ___________ which would otherwise inhibit ____________.
a. estrogen levels; osteoclast activity
which of the following is not a reason for bone remodeling?
a. to release calcium
b. to assist with muscle contraction
c. to stimulate neurons
d. to help resist stresses imposed by physical activity
e. all of the above are reasons for bone remodel
e. all of the above are reasons for bone remodel
which of the following is caused by erosion of the articular cartilages and is a result of wear and tear on the joints over the years?
a. rheumatoid arthritis
b. osteoarthritis
c. gout
d. osteoporosis
e. osteogenesis imperfect
b. osteoarthritis
what period of muscle twitch does the arrow below indicate?
relaxation period
a motor neuron and all the muscles it controls is called a:
a. functional neuron
b. myofilament
c. junctional fold
d. motor unit
e. synapse
...
all of the following are hinge/condylar joints except:
a. cervical vertebrae 1&2
b. interphalangeal
c. ankle
d. elbow
e. knee
a. cervical vertebrae 1&2
the sarcoplasmic reticulum is used for storing:
a. oxygen
b. myoglobin
c. Na
d. Ca
e. interstitial fluid
d. Ca
which of the following are accessory structures of the synovial joints?
a. ligaments
b. tendon sheaths
c. meniscus
d. bursae
e. all of the above
e. all of the above
a patient comes in with a loss of muscle due to damage of a motor neuron. what could this be classified as?
a. dystrophy
b. flaccid paralysis
c. hypertrophy
d. titan
e. gout
a. dystrophy
the absence of inhibition of acetylcholinesterase at a synapse would lead to which of the following? (critical thinking question)
a. flaccid paralysis
b. continual muscle contraction
c. atrophy
d. muscle wasting
...
all of the following are true except:
a. myosin heads are attracted to the exposed active sites on actin
b. myosin heads attach to actin forming cross bridges
c. the actin changes shape when sodium ions bind to it
d. the thin filament slides towards the center of the sarcomere
e. during a contraction, the i band decreases in width
...
your 11 year old patient has presented with an injury to the forearm. the physician takes radiated graphs, or x-rays, to check for a fracture. you know that the physician will check carefully in the area called the _____________ because this is the area in which long bones grow in length. this are is made of ___________.
a. epiphyseal line; osteons
b. diaphysis; hyaline cartilage
c. epiphyseal plate; fibrocartilage
d. epiphyseal plate; hyaline cartilage
e. diaphyseal plate; chondrocytes
d. epiphyseal plate; hyaline cartilage
aerobic respiration produces _________ more ATPs per glucose molecule than glycolysis does.
a. 12-14
b. 24-26
c. 34-36
d. 48-50
e. 52-52
c. 34-36
when ___________ become enclosed in lacunae, they become cells called _________.
a. osteocytes; osteoblasts
b. osteoblasts; osteoclasts
c. osteocytes; osteoclasts
d. osteoblasts; osteocytes
d. osteoblasts; osteocytes
what type of cartilage is found in the pubic symphysis? and this joint is __________.
a. elastic cartilage; amphiarthrotic
b. hyaline cartilage; synarthrotic
c. fibrocartilage; amphiarthrotic
d. fibrocartilage; synarthotic
c. fibrocartilage; amphiarthrotic