106 terms

Psych Final

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Emotion
a positive or negative experience that is associated with a particular pattern of physiological activity
James-Lange Theory
Theory of emotion that states a stimulus triggers activity in the body, which in turn produces activity in the brain
Cannon-Bard theory
Theory of emotion that states a stimulus simultaneously triggers activity in the body and emotional experience in the body and emotional experience in the brain
Two-factor theory
Theory of emotion that states that emotions are based on inferences about the cause of physiological arousal
Appraisal
An evaluation of the emotion-relevant aspects of a stimulus
Emotion regulation
Strategies people use to influence their own emotional experience
Reappraisal
Changing one's emotional experience by changing the way one thinks about the emotion eliciting stimulus
Emotional expression
An observable sign of an emotional state
Facial feedback hypothesis
Emotional expressions can cause the emotional experiences they signify
Display rule
Norm for appropriate expression of an emotion. Intensification = exaggerating, deintensification = muting, masking = expressing different emotion than feeling, neutralizing = displaying no expression of emotion
Motivation
Purpose for or psychological cause of an action
Hedonic principle
Claim that people are motivated to experience pleasure and avoid pain
Homeostasis
Tendency for a system to take action to keep itself in a particular state
Human Sexual Response Cycle
Stages of physiological arousal during sexual activity: excitement, plateau, orgasm, resolution
Intrinsic motivation
Motivation to take actions that are themselves rewarding
Extrinsic motivation
Motivation to take actions that lead to rewards
Approach motivation
Motivation to experience a positive outcome
Avoidance motivation
Motivation to not experience a negative outcome
Terror management theory
Theory of how people respond to knowledge of their own mortality
Developmental Psychology
The study of continuity and change across the life span
Zygote
Fertilized egg that contains chromosomes from both an egg and a sperm
Germinal stage
2 week period of development beginning at conception
Embryonic stage
Period of prenatal development that lasts from 2nd to 8th week
Fetal stage
Period of prenatal development lasting from week 9 to birth
Teratogens
Agents that impair development
Infancy
Stage of development that begins at birth and lasts 18-24 months
Motor development
Emergence of the ability to execute physical actions
Cephalocaudal rule
Tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from head to feet
Proximodistal rule (inside to outside)
Tendency for motor skills to emerge in sequence from the center to the periphery
Sensorimotor stage
Period of development from birth through infancy where infants are using ability to sense an move to acquire info
Schemas
Theories about the way the world works
Object permanence
Belief that objects exist even when they are not visible
Preoperational stage
Stage of cognitive development that begins at about 2 years and ends at about 6 years during which children develop a preliminary understanding of the physical world
Concrete operational stage
Stage of cognitive development that begins at about 6 years and ends at about 11 years, during which children learn how operations/actions can transform "concrete objects of the physical world
Formal operational stage
Final stage of cognitive development, begins at about age 11 during which children learn to reason about abstract concepts
Egocentrism
Failure to understand that the world appears differently to different people
Theory of the mind
Understanding that other people's mental representations guide their behaviors
Joint attention
Ability to focus on what another person is focused on
Social referencing
Ability to use another person's reactions as info about how we should think about the world
Preconventional stage
Stage of moral development in which the morality of an action is primarily determined by its consequences for the actor
Conventional stage
Stage of moral development in which morality of an action is primarily determined by the extent to which it conforms to social rules
Post conventional stage
Stage of moral development in which the morality ofl an action is determined by a set of general principles that reflect core values
Adolescence
Period of development that begins with the onset of sexual maturity and lasts until the beginning of adulthood
Socioemotional Selectivity Theory
As time horizons shrink, as they typically do with age, people become increasingly selective, investing greater resources in emotionally meaningful goals and activities
Harry Harlow's experiments
Experiments involving maternal separation, dependency needs, and social isolation of Rhesus monkeys
Secure attachment
Type of attachment in which a child is comfortable while the mother is there
Anxious Avoidant attachment
Type of attachment in which a child Ignores a returning caregiver
Anxious ambivalent attachment
Type of attachment in which a child shows distress before separation, clingy after return
Personality
An individual's characteristic style of behaving, thinking and feeling
Projective tests
Tests designed to reveal inner aspects of individuals personalities by analysis of their responses to standard series of ambiguous stimuli
Thematic Apperception Test (TAT)
Projective technique in which respondent's underlying motives, concerns, and the way they see the social world are believed to be revealed by analysis of stories made up about ambiguous pictures of people
Openness to experience, conscientiousness, extraversion, agreeableness, and neuroticism
The Big Five Personality Traits
Self-actualizing tendency
Human motive towards realizing our inner potential
Person-situation controversy
Question of whether behavior is caused more by personality or by situational factors
Locus of control
A person's tendency to seek evidence to perceive the control of rewards as internal to the self or external in the environment
Self-serving bias
People tend to take credit for their success but downplay responsibility for their failures
Existential approach
School of thought that regards personality as governed by an individual's ongoing choices and decisions in the context of the realities of life and death
Social-cognitive approach
Views personality in terms of how the person thinks about the situations encountered in daily life and behaves in response to them
Social psychology
The study of the causes and consequences of sociality
Frustration-aggression hypothesis
Animals aggress when their desires are frustrated
Status-quo bias
People have a preference to maintain the default/norm
Gambler's fallacy
Humans are bad at probability. We assume that random outcomes follow a pattern, and that future outcomes depend on prior ones even when they don't
Law of small numbers
You incorrectly assume that you can apply a finding from a very small sample to the larger population
Group polarization
The tendency for groups to make decisions that are more extreme than any member would have made alone
Common knowledge effect
Tendency for group discussions to focus on information that all members share
Groupthink
Tendency for groups to reach consensus in order to facilitate interpersonal harmony
Deindividuation
Immersion in a group causes people to become less concerned with their personal values
Diffusion of responsibility
The tendency for individuals to feel diminished responsibility for their actions when surrounded by others acting the same way
Social loafing
Tendency for people to expend less effort in a group than alone
Bystander intervention
The act of helping strangers in an emergency situation
Altruism
Behavior that benefits another without benefitting oneself
Asch conformity study
Study in which when confederates all gave the wrong answer, subjects almost always conformed and changed their answer, even though it was clearly wrong
Social exchange
Hypothesis that people remain in relationships only as long as they perceive a favorable ratio of costs to benefits
CoNormative influence
Another person's behavior provides information about what is appropriate
Systematic persuasion
Process by which attitudes/beliefs are changed by appeals to reason
Heuristic persuasion
Process by which attitudes or beliefs are changed by appeals to habit or emotion
Cognitive dissonance
Unpleasant state arising when a person recognizes the inconsistency of his/her actions, attitudes, or beliefs
Self-fulfilling prophecy
Tendency for people to behave as expected to behave
Attributions
Inferences about the causes of people's behavior
Correspondence bias
Tendency to make a dispositional attribution when we should instead make a situational attribution
Stress
Physical and psychological response to internal or external events or chronic pressures that place demands on a person or threaten the person's well-being
Hypothalamic - pituitary-adrenocortical (HPA) axis
What happens in fight or flight, where brain activation in response to a threat stimulates releasee of a hormone which stimulates glands above the kidneys
General Adaptation Syndrome (GAS) : alarm, resistance, exhaustion
3 stage physiological stress response : phases- the body mobilizes resources to respond, body adapts to arousal and tries to cope, body's resistance collapses
Type A behavior pattern
Tendency toward easily aroused hostility, impatience, sense of time urgency, and competitive achievement strivings (more likely to experience heart issues)
Repressive coping
Way to cope with stress by facing the stressor & working to overcome it
Rational coping
Facing the stressor and working to overcome it
Reframing
Finding a new or creative way to think about a stressor that reduces its threat
Diathesis-stress model
A person may be predisposed for a psychological disorder that remains unexpressed until triggered by stress
Comorbidity
co-occurrence of 2 or more disorders in a single individual
Anxiety disorder
Class of mental disorder in which anxiety is the predominant feature
Phobic disorders
Marked, persistent, and excessive fear and avoidance of specific objects, activities or situations
Panic disorder
Sudden occurrence of multiple psychological and physiological symptoms that contribute to a feeling of stark terror
Generalized Anxiety Disorder
Chronic excessive worry accompanied by 3 or more of the following symptoms: restlessness, fatigue, concentration issues, irritability, muscle tension and sleep disturbance
Obsessive compulsive disorder (oCD)
Disorder in which repetitive, intrusive thoughts and ritualistic behaviors designed to fend off those thoughts interfere significantly with an individual's functioning
Post-Traumatic Stress Disorder (PTSD)
Disorder characterized by chronic physiological arousal, recurrent thoughts, or images of the trauma and avoidance of things that call the traumatic event to mind
Mood disorders
Mental disorders that have mood disturbance as their predominant feature
Major depressive disorder
Disorder characterized by a severely depressed mood and/or inability to experience pleasure that lasts 2 or more weeks and is accompanied by feelings of worthlessness, lethargy and keep and appetite disturbance
Helplessness theory
Individuals prone to depression automatically attribute negative experiences to causes that are internal (their fault) stable (unlikely to change) and global (widespread)
Bipolar disorder
Condition characterized by cycles of abnormal, persistent high mood (mania) and low mood (depression)
Expressed emotion
Measure of how much hostility, criticism, and emotional over involvement are used when speaking about a family member with a mental disorder
Schozophrenia
Psychotic disorder characterized by profound disruption of basic psychological processes, a distorted perception of reality, altered or blunted emotion, and disturbances in thought, motivation or behavior
Autism-spectrum disorder
A condition beginning in early childhood in which a person shows persistent communication deficits as well as restricted and repetitive behaviors, interests, or activities
ADHD
Persistent pattern of severe problems with inattention and/or hyperactivity or impulsiveness that cause significant impairment in functioning
Conduct disorder
Persistent pattern of deviant behavior involving aggression to people or animals, destruction of property, deceitfulness or theft, or serious rule violations
Personality disorders
Enduring patterns of thinking, feeling, or relating to others or controlling impulses that deviate from cultural expectations and cause distress or impaired functioning
Antisocial personality disorder
A pervasive pattern of disregard for and violation of the rights of others that begins in childhood or early adolescence and continues into adulthood. Sociopaths & Psychopaths