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Section 1 chapter 11 resources, strategies, and early battles
Terms in this set (26)
What were the advantages of the Union?
- advantage in population (22 million to 5.5 million)
- most of the nations coal and iron came from Union mines, also in west gold + silver
- provided a wide variety of manufacturing
- produced more ammunition, arms, uniforms, medical supplies, and railroad cars than confederecy
- larger railroad network for moving troops and material
- small but well-organized navy
- had an established government and an outstanding leader in Abraham lincoln
What were the advantages of the confederacy?
- fighting for the preservation of slavery
- strong military tradition and fine leaders like Robert E. Lee
- fighting a defensive war on famaliar ground
Why did the Confederacy seek foreign support?
Politically it hoped to win formal recognition from Britain and France. Trade with these nations was crucial to the south, since the supply of manufactured goods from the north was now cut off. By the same token, the European textile industry was dependent on sotherm cotton. Confederate leaders reason that if the war dragged on, French and British Mills wouldn't run out of raw cotton. Therefore, these countries might be willing to provide military aid for the South.
What was the initial union strategy for war?
A two-part plan devised by General Winfield Scott. First, the union would blockade southern ports starving the south of income and supplies. Then, Union forces would drive south word along the Mississippi River. Union control of the Mississippi would split the Confederacy into two, fatally weakening. Scott's plan came to be known as the Anaconda plan, after a type of snake that coils around its prey and squeezes it to death.
What did others think of the anaconda plan?
Slavery congressman thought Scott plan was to timid. They favored a massive military campaign that would quickly free the slaves across the south. Lincoln also hoped that a decisive victory over rebel forces mast in northern Virginia and around Richmond might lead the confederacy to negotiate an end to the crisis.
Was the Anaconda plan central to the union war strategy?
What was the tricky political question the union faced?
How to prevent the secession of Missouri, Kentcky, Delaware, and Maryland.
What would happen if the border states chose to secede the union?
The union could be lost
How did Lincoln reduce the threat of losing the border states from the union?
He insisted that his only goal was to save the union. In his first inaugural address, he announced, "I believe I have no lawful right to free the slaves, and I have no inclination to do so." Although Lincolns stand troubled abolitionists, he did succeed in keeping the border states loyal to the union.
When did the first large battle take place in the Civil War?
Not until three months after firing on fort Sumter
How did the battle of Bull Run shake union confidence?
In July 1861, General Scott sent General Irvin McDowell and more than 30,000 union troops to do battle with Confederate forces waiting outside Washington. The two armies met at Bull Run, a creek near Manassas, Virginia. In the first hours, Union troops gain the upper hand. But a determined stand led by General Thomas J. Jackson sent them scrambling back to Washington. Confederates nicknamed their hero stonewall Jackson in honor of his refusal to yield to the union armies.
The battle of bull run in the north, and the battle of Manassas in the south proved to be a what? How did Lincoln respond to these battles for the union?
It proved a shock to those who had hoped the war would end quickly and who were unprepared for the carnage modern warfare could produce. Lincoln responded by calling for additional troops and by replacing McDowell with General George B McClellan.
What happened when Ulysses S. Grant pursued the Mississippi valley wing of the anaconda plan in February 1862?
He directed the attack and capture of two Confederate stronghold Fort Henry on the Tennessee River and Fort Donelson on the Cumberland River. His bold action drove confederate forces from Western Kentucky and much of Tennessee, and boosted northern morale.
What damaged Grant's rising reputation?
The battle of shiloh
How did the confederates seize Union forces when they tried to capture New Orleans?
Union ships under the command of David Farragut sailed through the golf of Mexico and seized the vital southern ports of New Orleans at the mouth of the Mississippi. Emboldened by his success, Faragut continued to sail north, hoping to capture the Confederate stronghold of Vicksburg Mississippi. The Confederates, however, stopped for Farragut's fleet more than 50 miles from Tennessee, grants land forces were also checked in their advance on Vicksburg.
Why did fighting spread to the Southwest?
The American southwest held strategy value to both sides in the Civil War. The region held rich gold mines and offered access to California and the Pacific ocean. Despite its importance, neither side stationed many troops in that region.
What was the most significant action occurred in New Mexico in early 1862?
When a confederate forces marched up the Rio grande from Texas. The goal was to drive Union troops from Southwest and capture it for the Confederacy. The rebel troops were defeated in late March at glorieta pass, thanks in part to the destruction of their supply train under Major John Chivington and Lt. Col. Manual Chavez. The Confederates eventually retreated back into Texas, never to mount another threat to union control of the Southwest.
Why did the Union and Confederacy vie for the loyalty of the southwest residence?
The union got help from Mexican American militia in Texas, which worked to disrupt confederate supply lines. Both sides also courted Native American groups throughout the entire west. The Cheyennes were able to bargain with the union government for land in return for their aid. The Confederates persuaded the creeks and Chocktaw to support their cause. They also sought support from the Cheroke he nation. The Cherokees, however, split over which side to support. Such conflict with the Native American groups was not uncommon as loyalties shifted during the course of the war.
What was one major battle that took place at sea?
In 1862 when the union ship monitor clashed with its confederate opponent Virginia off the Virginia coast. The union had hired a European engineer to design the monitor as a model for fleet of ships plated with iron armor the confederacy meanwhile built the ironclad Virginia by refitting a union ship previously known as the Merrimack. On March 9, the two ironclads met in battle, though neither ship emerged the victor.
What was the importance of the monitor and Virginia battle?
It signaled the beginning of the end of wooden warships
What were the goals of Lincoln's war strategy?
- initially was to preserve Union
- aimed at keeping the border states in the Union (thought it was crucial to winning the war)
- later changed to include abolition of slavery
Since taking the command of union forces Bull Run, General McClellan had been planning what?
What he hoped would be a decisive and drive on the Confederate capital at Richmond, Virginia
How did Mcclellans caution create fiction with Lincoln, who was anxious for military victories?
Lincoln pushed McClellan to act, the president was unwilling to get the general all the forces he asked for. Lincoln insisted on holding a large force near the capital to protect it from confederate attacks however stonewall Jackson's campaign in spring of 1862 increased Lincoln's concerns. By Midsummer Lincoln insisted that McClellan take action. Reluctantly McClellan sailed his army southward across Chesapeake Bay. The force landed on a peninsula south east of Richmond and then Began it's march toward the capital. Thus the action was called the peninsular campaign.
Why did McClellan fail to take Richmond?
Confederate General Robert E. Lee led his troops skillfully. In series of battles known as the seven days June 26 - July 2, Lee took advantage of Mcclellans cautious style. The union advance stalled and McClellan retreated to Washington. After retreating, Lincoln replaced McClellan. The move proved to be a mistake. At the second battle of Bull Run in late August, Lees Confederates handed the union a crushing defeat. Stonewall Jackson was instrumental in outmaneuvering a larger Union and nearly destroying it before the federals could retreat. The victory, known in the south as the battle of Manassas, energized Lee and led Lincoln to McClellan to command.
Where were there pro-Union pockets of ppl in the south?
Even not all southerners were slaveholders why did they resent the north
They resented because they saw northern efforts as trying to dominate them
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