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Non-vascular Plants

No xylem and phloem (no roots/stems/leaves), gametophyte is dominant in alternation of generations life cycle, sporophyte generation dependant on gametophyte, water is needed for reproduction, dispersal of species by spores.


The liverworts. Example: Marchantia. 10,000 species.


The mosses. 12,000 species of mosses.

Vascular Plants

Have xylem and phloem (have roots/stems/leaves), sporophyte generation is dominant in alternation of generations life cycle.

Seedless Vascular Plants

In addition to vascular plant attributes: water needed for reproduction, gametophyte is independent, do not produce seeds, dispersal of species by spores.


Whisk ferns. Example: Psilotum nudum.


Club Mosses. 1,000 species. Example: Lycopodium, Isoetes, Selaginella.


Horsetails. 155 species. Examples: equisetum.


Ferns. 12,000 species. Examples: all ferns.

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