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During an acute reaction to a negative stress situation is released into the blood stream, causing

Adrenaline, muscles to become more responsive

Athletes who sustain injuries that disable them from performing may experience:

All of the above (fear, depression, anger)

Which of the following is the final Kubler-Ross stage?


One of the most common mental and emotional stress producers is:


Deterioration in the usual standard of performance, chronic fatigue, indigestion, and inability to sleep often accompany


Which of the following mood disorders can be treated with light therapy?

Seasonal affective disorder

In which of the phases of rehabilitation does the patient feel fearful and may be in denial?

Immediate post-injury

During meditation all of the following are performed EXCEPT:

Muscles are tensed and then relaxed

During stress the threat is immediate and the body's response is instantaneous.


Personality disorders include all of the following EXCEPT:


Injury and or illness are stressors and the athlete's ability to cope with these stressors depends on the athlete's:

Cognitive appraisal

The method of relaxation characterized by recognizing muscular tension and consciously releasing that tension is the method.


An athlete that is having sleep disorders, depression, emotional instability, increased sweating, disturbed appetite and digestion is showing signs of:

Exercise abstinence syndrome

Which of the following is an outward sign of an overreaction to an injury?


The first step in arm relaxation is to:

Clench fist

Which of the following is NOT a form of direct transmission?

Eating utensils

All of the following are signs and symptoms of HBV except

weight loss

All of the following sports are at a high risk for HIV transmission EXCEPT:


If a uniform becomes saturated with blood, what is the proper action that should be taken for the athlete to continue participation?

The uniform should be changed immediately

Which of the following substances is appropriate for cleaning tables in the athletic training room?

A 1:10 solution of bleach and water

Which of the following is considered a bloodborne pathogen?

Hepatitis B

To reduce the risk of HIV infection, it is important to:

Avoid drugs that impair judgment

To protect an athlete from disease transmission, the USOC recommends:

They shower immediately after practice

After a virus enters and attacks a host cell it:

Uses the cell to replicate

The HBV vaccine is given in:

3 doses over a 6-month period

The more sensitive HIV test that detects antibodies to HIV proteins is the:

Western blot

What type of dressing is most beneficial in providing a barrier against disease transmission and keeps the wound moist which is conducive to healing?


The normal range of motion for dorsiflexion of the ankle is:

10 degrees

A positive anterior drawer test indicates damage to which ligament?

Anterior Talofibular

A grade II lateral ankle sprain indicates damage to which ligaments?

Anterior Talofibular and Calcaneofibular

When squeezing the calf muscle with the leg extended and the foot hanging over the edge of the table, you are performing which test for Achilles tendon rupture?

Thompson Test

When a fracture of the lower leg is suspected, what test can be done to reaffirm your suspicions?

Percussion Test

A condition that occurs when the tissue fluid pressure has increased because of the confines of the fascia and/or bone resulting in compression of the muscles, nerves, and blood vessels is called:

Compartment Syndrome

Which of the following is a sprain that results from forceful external rotation of the ankle?


A common mechanism of injury for peroneal tendon subluxation is:

Forced Plantarflexion and Inversion

Which of the following would be a specific functional test for dorsiflexion?

Walk on Heels

A common injury in the lower leg of athletes or joggers who run downhill for an extended period of time is:

Anterior Tibialis Tendinitis

The ligament that protects the knee from a valgus stress and external rotational forces is the:

Medial collateral

The strongest ligament of the knee and the main stabilizer is the:

Posterior cruciate

Q angles that exceed degrees can be considered excessive and can lead to a pathological condition in the patella.


Running, turning, figure-eights, backing up, and stopping are what types of test?


The ligament injury of the knee generally considered to be the most serious involves the:

Anterior cruciate

A gradual degenerative process of the underside of the patella is called:

Chondromalacia patella

A drawer test with the lower leg internally rotated indicates possible damage to:

Lateral collateral ligament and posteromedial capsule

When measuring for a functional leg-length discrepancy, one should take the measurements from:

The umbilicus to the medial malleolus

The mechanism of injury that leaves the posterior cruciate ligament at greatest risk for injury is:

Landing on the anterior aspect of the bent knee with the foot plantarflexed

Which of the following is the most common direction for the patella to sublux?


Improper care of a thigh contusion leading to incomplete absorption of the hematoma, which later produces formation similar to cartilage or bone, is called:

Myositis ossificans traumatica

The most common site for stress fractures of the femur is the femoral:


The Kendall and Thomas tests determine the extent of:

Flexion contractures

An avascular necrosis of the femoral head seen in children 3 to 12 years of age is called:

Legg-Perthes disease

An injury that results from a blow to an inadequately protected iliac crest and produces an extremely handicapping injury is the:

hip pointer

In managing a hamstring strain, which of the following should be avoided?

Stretch by ballistic movements

The strongest ligament of the body that prevents hyperextension of the hip is called the:

Iliofemoral ligament

When an athlete walks into the athletic training room you notice that he/she is walking with the toe in. This could be a result of:

Femoral anteversion

A hip sprain is best revealed through the athlete's inability to:

Circumduct the thigh

To measure anatomical discrepancy of leg length, measurements are taken between the medial malleoli and the:

Anterior superior Iliac spine


Intensity or magnitude of an electrical current.


Heated by direct contact with a hot medium.


Heating directly through another medium, such as liquid or air.


Heating by other forms of energy.


The quantity of an electrical charge that can be transferred by 1 amp in 1 second.

coupling medium

Provides air-tight contact for the ultrasound transducer head with the skin and a
friction-proof surface on which to glide.


Cold application combined with exercise to alleviate pain.

current duration

The length of time that the current is actually flowing. (Also known as pulse width or pulse duration.)


Massage technique of light and deep stroking with the heels and palms of the hands.


The number of wave forms being emitted by the electrical stimulating unit in one second.


Massage technique in which the fingers and thumbs move in circular patterns, stretching the underlying tissue and thus increasing circulation of the part.

galvanic current

Direct electrical current that can flow continuously or intermittently.

hunting reaction

Alternating vasoconstriction and vasodilation in the body's effort to prevent tissue damage from cold.


the voltage output of the stimulating unit.


Process whereby ions in solution are carried through the intact skin by an electrical current.


Lack of blood supply to a body part.


systematic manipulation of the soft tissue.


A lowÄfrequency, lowÄintensity that is used to stimulate the healing process in both soft tissue
and bone by altering the electrical activity individual cells.


The ability of the electrical stimulating unit to change or alter the magnitude or duration of a
wave form.

nerve palsy

Momentary loss of function caused when cold is applied to a part that has motor nerves close
to the skin.


Resistance to the passing of an electrical current along a conductor.

paroxysmal cold hemoglobinuria

Rare disease that occurs minutes after cold exposure; may lead to
renal dysfunction, hypertension, and coma.


Massage technique in which soft tissue is held between the thumb and forefinger and is
alternately rolled, lifted, and twisted to loosen tissue and stimulate drainage.

piezoelectrical effect

Electrical current produced by applying pressure to certain crystals such as quartz.


refers to the direction of current flow.


The transfer of heat through space from one object to another.

Raynaud's phenomenon

Condition in which cold exposure causes vasospasm of the digital arteries
lasting from minutes to hours, or possible death.


Massage technique using cupping, hacking, and pinching movements.


application of heat to treat disease and traumatic injuries.

trigger point

Small hyperirritable area within a muscle in which nerve impulses bombard the central
nervous system and are expressed as a referred pain; may be active or latent.


Closing of blood vessels.


Opening of blood vessels


Rapid shaking of tissue either manually or with a mechanical vibrator.


Force that moves current along a conductor: 1 volt is the amount of electrical force required to
send a current of 1 amp through a resistance of 1 ohm.


Measurement of electrical power.

wave forms

A graphic representation of the shape, direction, amplitude, and direction of a particular
electrical current.

arthrokinematics (accessory motions)

Motion occurring between articulating surfaces of a joint moving through a physiologic range of motion.

closed chain

The distal segment is fixed.


Uses a fixed speed with accommodating resistance to provide maximal resistance throughout the range of motion.


The ability to detect movement.

kinetic chain activities

A concept dealing with the anatomical functional relationships that exist in the extremities.

muscle endurance

Ability to sustain muscle contractions at a submaximal effort over a period of time.

muscle strength

Allows an athlete to overcome a given resistance.

open chain

The distal segment is free to move.

overload principle

All work should be performed with a progressively increased load.


Constant sensory information for essential reflex adjustments of muscle actions and for
awareness of position and movement.

proprioceptive neuromusclular facilitation (PNF)

Rehabilitation method that increases motor activity
by stimulation of the proprioceptors.


Restoration of an athlete to the level of preinjury fitness through a carefully designed
program of therapeutic exercise.


Physiological need and psychological desire for a drug.


Drug that inhibits pain.


Agents that produce local or general numbness to touch/pain.


Drug that inhibits the action of a poison.


Agents that kill bacteria on living tissue.


Chemical agent that is produced by microorganisms that interfere with metabolic processes of pathogenic organisms.


Agents that inhibit or prevent coughing.


Agent used to stop capillary bleeding.


Agents that retard or inhibit the growth of bacteria.

beta blockers

Agents that block sympathetic nerve endings; produce relaxation of blood vessels and
decrease contractility of the heart.


Povidone-iodine combination used as a germicide, surgical scrub, and antiseptic.


Gives a soothing protective coating for itching dermatitis.


Agents that relieve gastrointestinal gas.


Agents that promote bowel evacuation.


Agents that applied locally to produce an inflammatory reaction for the relief of deeper

cumulative effects

Unfavorable reactions caused by administering a drug more quickly than it can be
metabolized; drug accumulates in the system.


Substance that reduces the growth of bacteria on nonliving objects.


Agents that increase urine output.


Administration of a drug that is designed to improve performance.


Any chemical agent that effects living matter.

drug vehicle

Substance in which a drug is contained: it provides a means for transporting the drug
through the body.


Agent that causes reverse peristalsis or vomiting.


Gas in the gastrointestinal tract.


Substance that inhibits or prevents the growth of fungus.


Disinfectant or antiseptic that kills bacteria.


Psychological need for a drug or medication.


Chemical substances used for their disinfectant and antiseptic properties.


Excessive hair growth and/or the presence of hair in unusual places.


Oily or fatty substances that are rubbed onto the skin resulting in a local or systemic reaction.


Agent that produces narcosis or insensibility.


The study of drugs and their origin, nature, properties, and effects on living organisms.

physical dependence

The state of drug adaptation that manifests as the development of tolerance and, when the drug is removed, causes withdrawal.


Agent given as a medication but that contains no drug.


Property of drugs that causes them to be more effective when used together than either would be when used alone.


Irritation of peripheral sensory nerves; it is a symptom rather than a condition.

psychological dependence

The drive to repeat the ingestion of a drug to produce pleasure or to avoid discomfort.


Agents that redden the skin by increasing local circulation through dilation of blood vessels.

side effect

Effect that a drug has other than the desired action.

specific effect

Action of a drug that is desired and produced in a certain tissue or system.


Drug that destroys fungal spores.

synergistic effect

Property of drugs resulting in greater effects when Ädrugs are combined than when they are used alone.


Effect a drug has on the body resulting in the body's need for more of the drug to obtain the same action as the original dosage.

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