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16 terms

8th Grade Earth Science CH 15B

Sedimentary Rocks
STUDY
PLAY
Fossil
any trace or remains of a living organism that has been preserved by natural means
Paleontology
Study of fossilized animals and plants
Precipitate
Nonclastic sedimentary rock formed when minerals crystalize and sink to the bottom of still water
Evaporite
Nonclastic sedimentary rock formed when minerals crystalize in still water and left behind when the water evaporates
Halite
Common or Rock salt
Salt Dome
halite deposited deep underground as a vertical cylindrical mass forced upward from below by great pressure
Uses for Limestone
Neutralizing acidic soils, building roads, making cement
Limestone
containing mainly calcite -- precipitates directly out of seawater
Matrix
material in which something else is enclosed or embedded
Breccia
similar to conglomerate but fragments are sharp and angular and often found in fine-grained matrix like clay
Conglomerate
coarsest grade of clastic sedimentary rock, containing gravels, pebbles, cobbles, large boulders held together by mass of cemented sand grains -- most often contain quartz
Sandstone
similar to breccia and conglomerate but the fragments are smaller -- has porosity
Siltstone
one of two types of clastic sedimentary rock with smallest particles (microscopic) -- does not split easily into thin sheets
Shale
one of two types of clastic sedimentary rock with smallest particles (microscopic) -- splits easily into thin sheets, usually gray, may also be white, brown, red, green, black
Porosity
The percentage of the total volume of a rock or sediment that consists of open spaces.
Permeable
ability of a rock to permit liquids to pass through pores, happens when pores are interconnected