Ancient Africa and Asia
Terms in this set (79)
What is the African savanna like?
short grassy plains
Three physical landforms found in Africa
Great Rift Valley, Mt Kilamanjaro, Sahara Desert
Four rivers found in Africa
Zambezzi, Niger, and Congo, Nile
Why did people migrate in Ancient
The environment changes and the resources become exhausted.
What did the Bantu languages teach us about Ancient African cultures?
It taught us about their cultural values.
How did the location of Ghana influence its wealth?
It was located between salt mines and gold fields.
Besides its location, what other factors made Ghana wealthy?
It had safe trade routes and the goods were taxed.
Name three reasons why Mansa Musa is important to Mali.
His pilgrimage to Mecca, the pilgrimage caught the attention of map makers, Europeans became interested in Mali's resources.
What were three exports of Axum?
Ivory, myrrh, and frankincense
What country replaced the ancient city of Axum?
Why are griots important to the cultures of Ancient Africa?
Their stories recorded African history and passed it on from generation to generation.
What were the two important religions of this place and time period?
Islam and Christianity
Which of the main African climate zones is best suited for agriculture? In which part of Africa is this climate zone found?
Mediterranean; hot summers and mild rainy winters, along with fertile soil, make the N. African coast and southern tip of Africa ideal for agriculture.
How might people who study languages help historians learn more about an area's past?
Linguists study similarities between languages and determine their origins. This could help historians understand how people have moved around. In addition, linguists might communicate with older members of a group and learn about their experiences.
What three factors made Ghana a wealthy kingdom?
Ghana became wealthy because ofits safe trade routes, is location between gold fields and salt mines, and the income it earned from the taxes it placed on trade goods.
In what ways does the economy of Mali compare with the economy of Ghana?
...Same: both kingdoms relied on trade, particularly for gold, with other African nations for their wealth. Different: Mali also traded with Europeans and had a strong agricultural economy.
Identify and explain the role of story tellers in Mali.
Over time, griots, or professional storytellers, have passed from one generation to the next stories about the ...
What three points would you include in a summary of Christianity in East Africa?
...Christian kingdoms were first established in northeastern Africa about 330 when the Axum king Ezana convered to Christianity. People in the kingdoms of Noba and Makurra converted between the years of 500 and 650. One Zagwe king, Lalibela, showed his faith by having 11 churches built out of solid rock during this reign.
Diverse Geographical Zones of Africa
Costal: Jungles, rain forests.
kingdom at junction of White and Blue Nile
first agricultural civilization? first kingship? Trade with Rome, India, and others. Rose after fall of Egypt's New Kingdom
Kushite Capital, iron ore mines, urban center, pyramids (flat tops and smaller than Egyptian's)
highlands of modern Ethiopia, started as colony of Saba (Sheba), became trade center with India and Greece
Axum adopted this, 4th Century CE, different from Eastern Orthodox and Roman Catholic
located below Egypt/Nubia
desert, barrier between northern and southern Africa
areas of fertile soil on the edge of the desert (Sahara)
Trade routes, cross-Saharan, North/South direction, 1st Millennium BCE
nomads of the desert, traders (Carthage to E Africa), "Fleets of the Desert"
500 BCE, iron was smelted from ore to create tools and statues
may have developed in E Aftica or learned from Carthage
E Africa society, Niger River area
rural, subsistence farmers
each village was sovereign
Indian Ocean Trade
monsoon winds helped
Eastern traders arrived, brought new crops (bananas)
Settled in Madagascar and similar areas
Thought to be connected to Atlantic
Reached Africa in 1st millennium BCE
Stone Age Holdovers
smaller/lighter skinned than Bantus
clicking language (original language?)
Arab Conquest of Africa
Began in 700 BCE, conquered most of N Africa quickly
Axum left as the only Christian state in Africa
West/South Africa not penetrated at first, but eventually under Islamic influence
Most Eastern African societies had a deity that was responsible for the creation of lift
Poly and mono theistic, big god with lesser ones
belief in afterlife tied to ancestors
people could trace their lineage to a commor ancestor in each clan/city-state
Landscape that covered present-day Mongolia
herded domesticated animals
depended on animals for food, shelter and clothing. traveled in clans based on ancestory
Temujin (Genghis Khan)
Mongol clan leader who sought to unify Mongols, led Mongols in conquering most of Asia--brilliant organizer, good strategist, used cruelty as a weapon
4 regions that made up the Mongol empire--Khanate of the Great Khan, Khanate of Chagati, Ilkhanate, Khanate of the Golden Horde--each ruled by a descendant of Genghis Khan
Mongolian Peace period, guaranteed safe passage for trade caravans, travelers and missionaries. Genghis Khan used cruelty as a weapon so people were afraid
grandson of Genghis Khan, assumed title of Great Khan in 1260, founded Yuan Dynasty--united China for the first time in 300 years
young Venetian trader, learned many Asian languages, served the Great Khan for 17 years
Traditional Japanese religion. Literally means "The Way of the Gods". This religion was polytheistic and shared many mores with Buddhism and Taoism. Held purification in high regard. The religion was overpowered by Buddhism, but shrines still exist today for this religion, as well as incorporated doctrines (there are idealogical and emotional forces that still exist today in Japan that stem from Shinto).
Mountains in Japan
Widespread. Many (if not all) are volcanos (some are inactive). Mount Fuji in an icon of Japan (and the highest mountain).
Japan as an Archipelago
Japan is not one solid land mass - made up of many island. Together, the islands make up an archipelago.
Forests in Japan
Uncommon. Rice cultivation and deforestation (development of urban and residential areas) have reduced forest area. Japan's climate and the presence of catastrophic natural disasters also make it difficult for trees to grow.
Volcanic Activity in Japan
Catastrophic. A result of the tectonic plates and magma. This can make living conditions dangerous and difficult as well as the sustainment of agriculture. Many (if not all) of the mountains in Japan are volcanos (some are inactive).
Often underwater earthquakes or volcanos that cause a sudden and large displacement of water, which triggers a series of waves that can cause a destructive collision with the coast. Causes problems for coastal towns and areas.
Seismic Activity in Japan
Japan is located in a region where tectonic plates meet, causing volcanos, earthquakes and tsunamis. These disasters can make living dangerous and difficult as well as the sustainment of agriculture.
"Ring of Fire"
Area with high amount of seismic activity (due to the the meeting places of several tectonic plates) in the basin of the Pacific Ocean.
Major Japanese Islands
4 major islands
Literally means "God Winds", but commonly know as the "Divine Winds". In Japanese legend, these winds blew the Mongol invaders off course.
These are seasonally reversing winds existing in Asia.
A mature tropical cyclone existing in the northwestern part of the Pacific Ocean. Like other natural distasters in Japan, this weather system ravaged villages and agriculture.
Traditional Japanese female entertainers. Often characterized by wearing white makeup on their face while wearing extravagant clothing. These woman were often at courts of nobles or aristocrats.
Rice Cultivation in Japan
Dominated life. Backbreaking work that took a long time to harvest the crop. This is a reason for deforestation in Japan. This type of agriculture was introduced from the Asian mainland (Korea).
Feudalistic term. This was the piece of land granted from the superior to the inferior.
A covert samurai agent.
Japanese word for the spirits, natural forces, or essence in the Shinto faith.
Selective Cultural Borrowing from China in Japan
The implementation of certain Chinese ideas, such as Confucianism, Taoism, language, urban planning design, Buddhism, etc., that were deemed advantageous to Japanese society. Occurred from c.550-750 CE.
Wood in Architecture
Prevents building destruction from earthquakes - very stable medium. Famously used in the Todaji at Nara - the largest wooden building in the world.
Rise of Feudalism in Japan
Land was granted to someone in return for loyalty and obedience. The emperor theoretically "controlled" all of the land, however, power struggles were common. The basic functions of the government were carried out by landlords (Daimyo) and appointed people, like the samurai. The political and military figures consisted of the emperor, daimyo and shogun.
The rule was called the shogunate. A warlord who served the Daimyo who served the emperor. Japanese figure with most power.
Land was granted by the emperors to this figure. Referred to as lords and usually lived in courts and carried out (held responsible for) the basic functions of the land. Had some control over his/her shogun.
Nobles vs. Aristocrats vs. Lords in Japanese Society
A noble has a name attached to his title ("the Great", etc.). An aristocrat is just a generic term used to describe a wealthy person. A lord was often a person who had noble blood (this was often a daimyo).
Warriors who fought for the shogun or emperor. Practiced the "Way of the Samurai".
A vassal was often a servant, or someone of lower rank and power who served a lord, a person of higher rank and power. People were referred to as 'inferiors' - lower rank and power, or 'superiors' - higher rank and power. This term describes a hierarchal society. People of different ranks and power treated each other as equals by showing respect.
Bushido or "Way of the Samurai"
The major duties and responsibilities of a samurai warrior. Courage, respect, honesty, honor, loyalty, wisdom, focus, meditation, relentless, tactical, deadly, fierce are values associated with the samurai.
Retainers in Japanese Society
A paid servant. These people were retained. Often samurai (or other people who serve superiors).
A form of ritual suicide by disembowelment. This was performed in response to a loss of honor or extreme shame or embarrassment. Often done voluntarily, but also used as a form of capital punishment.
A term used for how inferiors paid respect to superiors in feudalistic Japan.
A form of Japanese puppet theater.
A traditional Japanese string instrument.
A traditional form of Japanese theater.
Sword vs. Chrysanthemum
A paradox because a sword is a symbol of destruction while a chrysanthemum is a symbol of peace, serenity and beauty. This idea is used to explain instincts of the Japanese people (eg. samurai), and how they balance destruction with peace, serenity, and beauty in their daily lives. This term is used as a metaphor to describe Zen Buddhism vs. Samurai Culture.
Tea Ceremony in Japan
A precise, quiet, and meticulously choreographed ceremony that represented samurai and Japanese values.
Government types in Japan
1. Clans (autonomous estates and pieces of land)
2. Imperialism (aristocracy)