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Early Islamic Empires Honors

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Islam
the monotheistic religion of Muslims founded in Arabia in the 7th century and based on the teachings of Muhammad as laid down in the Koran
Muslim
The Monotheistic religion of Islam
Arab
a member of a Semitic people originally from the Arabian peninsula and surrounding territories who speaks Arabic and who inhabits much of the Middle East and northern Africa
Muhammed
Founder of Islamic religion, Believed to be God's last prophet
Arabian Peninsula
Area of which Islam was born. Dry, Desert like
Bedouins
Arab nomads, based on the Arabian Peninsula. The tribe Muhammed was brought up by
Hijra
The journey led by Muhammad from Mecca to Medina in A.D. 622, marking the founding of Islam.
Revelation
the last book of the New Testament
Mecca
City where Muhammed took over after returning from Bedouin. Muhammed was originally from here and it was a large center for trade throughout the Middle East
Medina
The City that Muhammed took his followers to strengthen their religion and returned years later to Mecca
Prophet
Messanger from God
Quran
The exact words of what God's angle told Muhammed. A sacred text for Muslims
Sharia
Teachings from the Quran as well as the actions of Muhammed
Ka'ba
Holy site for Muslims in Mecca that contained a "holy rock" built by Abraham There must be peace at all times around this area what many Muslims make a journey to
People of the book
What Muslims believe Jews and Christians are
Five Pillars
The basis of Muslim life and what it's followers should live by
Shahada
Declaration of Fate
Ottoman Turks
captured Constantinople in 1453 and rename it Istanbul; as a result the Byzantine people flee to Italian City-States which becomes a catalyst for the expansion of language and art. One of the Splinter dynasties
Safavids
A shi'ite muslim dynasty that ruled in Persia (Iran and parts of Iraq) from the 16th-18th centuries that had a mixed culture of the persians, ottomans and arabs. One of the Splinter dynasties
Salat
prayer 5 times a day
facing Kaba (Mecca)
cleansing ritual before prayer
most important
repeating parts of the Quran
Zakat
pillar of islam; muslims are required to pay a tax yearly on property and walth, and this is to be distributed to the poor
Sawm
the third pillar of Islam is fasting (primarily during the month of Ramadan)
Hajj
the fifth pillar of Islam is a pilgrimage to Mecca during the month of Dhu al-Qadah
mosque
(Islam) a Muslim place of worship
minaret
tower used to call Muslims to prayer
caliph
the civil and religious leader of a Muslim state considered to be a representative of Allah on earth
rightly guided caliphs
The frist four caliphs. Abu Bakr,Umar, Uthamn, Ali spread Islam 4,000 miles
shia
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam, the branch of Islam whose members acknowledge Ali and his descendants as the rightful successors of Muhammad
sunni
one of the two main branches of orthodox Islam, a member of the branch of Islam that accepts the first four caliphs as rightful successors to Muhammad
umayyads
A dynasty that ruled the Muslim Empire from 661 to 750 and later established a kingdom in al-Andalus.
ali
the fourth caliph of Islam who is considered to be the first caliph by Shiites
abbassids
a dynasty of calphis ruling at Baghdad, a.d. 750-1258 claiming descent from Abbas, uncle of Muhammed
delhi sultanate
A Muslim leader of Ghur who defeated Hindu armies made Delhi, the third largest city of India, his capital.
sultan
the ruler of a Muslim country (especially of the former Ottoman Empire)
dome of the rock
Muslim shrine containing the rock from which Mohammad is believed to have risen to heaven; Jews believe Abraham prepared to sacrifice his son Isaac on the rock
seljuk turks
nomadic Turks from Asia who conquered Baghdad in 1055 and allowed the caliph to remain only as a religious leader. they governed strictly
mughal
Nomads who lived in the Indian subcontinent and established a powerful empire there, one of the nomads who invaded the Indian subcontinent in the 16th century and established a powerful empire there