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Praxis: Educational Law/history
Terms in this set (18)
The Americans and Disabilities Act is a federal law that prohibits discrimination on the basis of a person's disability for all services, programs, and activities provided or made available by state and local govt. The ADA is not dependent on the receipt of federal funds
Due process is a set of procedures or safeguards that give students with disabilities and their parents/guardians extensive rights. Those rights include notice of meetings, opportunities to examine relevant records, impartial hearings, and a review procedure
The Individuals with Disabilities Act is a federal statute made up of several grant programs to states in educating students with disabilities. The IDEA specifically lists types of disabilities and conditions that render a child entitled to special education.
An Individualized Education Plan is a written plan for a student with disabilities developed by a team of professionals and the child's parents or caregivers. An IEP is based on a multidisciplinary team's evaluation of the child and describes how the child is doing presently, what the child's learning needs are, and what services the child will need. IEPs are reviewed and updated yearly. They are required under Public Law 94-142, the IDEA
The Least Restrictive Environment is the educational setting, to the maximum extent appropriate, students with disabilities are educated with nondisabled peers
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act
1973 a civil rights law prohibiting discrimination against individuals with disabilities by federally assisted programs or activities. Eligibility for protection under Section 504 is not restricted to school-age children; it covers individuals from birth to death
Public Law 94-142
Set in 1975. Ensures a free and appropriate education is provided to handicapped children and adults 3-21. The term "least restrictive environment" originates with this law. Special education programs and meetings are regulated by this law. Law requires school to provide written permission from the parent or guardian for any evaluation of a child.
MA Laws of Education 1642 and 1647
1642: established that parents or "masters" were responsuble for instilling the principles of religion and the capital laws of the Commonwealth of Mass. All children and servants were required to demo competency in reading and writing as outlined by the govt. Not all children attended formal schools, so they had to have basic education.
1647: Law requires towns of 50 families or more to hire a schoolmaster who could teach the children to read and write. This was to combat negligence in large families.
Land Ordinance of 1785
By 1785, the separation of church and state were evident in American education. This ordinance helped to establish a way to fun public education. The 16th section in each township was reserved for the maintenance of public schools.
Northwest Ordinance of 1787
Provided land in the Great lakes and Ohio Valley regions for settlement. One part of the ordinance stated that religion, morality, and knowledge are necessary for a strong govt. The federal govt began to create a public school system offered to all children.
Plessy V Ferguson
Allowed for separate but equal
Brown V BOE
deemed separate but equal educational facilities specifically are inherently unequal
Oregon School Case of 1925 (Pierce V Society of Sisters)
Wanted to americanize school and require ages 8 to 16 to go to public school. Violates 14th amendment right of personal liberty...didn't go into action.
Cardinal Principles of Secondary Education
1. Health (promote good health habits)
2. Command of fundamental processes (writing, reading, oral and written expression, and mathematics)
3. Worthy home membership (schools should promote good relationships)
4. Vocation (known the variety of career options)
5. Civic education (develop awareness and concern for one's community)
6. Worthy use of leisure (advance skills to enrich a student's mind, body, spirit, and personality during leisure time)
7. Ethical behavior (instilling personal responsibility and initiative)
NEA Committee of Ten
National Education Association (in 1982) established standards for american high school and elementary schools. Recommends 8 years of elementary and 4 years of secondary education with these 4 strands:
3. Modern Language
The elementary and secondary education act of 1965 was a federal program enacted to respond to the inequity in schools for the educationally disadvantaged.
Goals 2000: The National Education Goals
Established during Clinton and carried to Bush
1. All students will start school ready to learn
2. High school graduation rates will meet or exceed 90%
3. Students will leave grades 4, 8, and 12 having demonstrated competency in challenging curricula in English, math, foreign language, civics, history, geography, econ, and art
4. Teachers will have access to high-quality professional development
5. Students in the US will be first in the world in science and math
6. Every adult in the US will be literate and possess the skills and knowledge necessary to be a good US citizen and to compete in the global economy
7. Schools will be free of drugs and violence
8. Schools will promote partnerships to increase parental involvement in education
No Child Left Behind
Historic, bipartisan education reform effort by Bush. 2001- reauthorized the Elementary and Secondary Education Act (ESEA), the main federal law affection education from K-HS. 4 Principles:
1. Accountability for results
2. More choices for parents
3. Greater local control and flexibility
4. An emphasis on doing what works based on scientific research
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