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Mitosis and Meiosis

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interphase
nucleus appears normal and the cell is performing its usual cellular functions
interphase
cell is increasing all of its components, including organelles as the mitochondria, ribosomes and centrioles
where does DNA replication occur
end of interphase
chromosomes which contain DNA are duplicated and contain two chromatids (sister chromatids) held together at the
Centromere
the nucleus divides during
Mitosis
cytoplasm divides is called
cytokinesis
what happens during cytokinesis
two daughter cells are produced
during sexual production another form of division occurs
meiosis
Meiosis is a part of
gametogenesis production of gametes(sex cells)
results of meiosis
daughter cells have half the number of chromosomes as the parent cell
results of mitosis
daughter cells have the same number of chromosomes and genetic material as the parent cell
what can chromosomes exchange during cross over
genetic material
how many stages are there to the cell cycle
4
name the four stages
G-1
S
G-2
M
what occurs during G-1 stage
growth
what occurs during S stage
chromosomes are duplicated
what occurs during G-2 stage
prepares for cell division
what occurs during M stage
cell divides
explain why it is called the cell cycle process
ordered sequence of events that extends from the time a cell is first formed from a dividing parent cell until it is own division into 2 cells
Mitosis
nuclear division that results in two new nuclei, each having the same number of chromosomes as the original nucleus
parental cell
the cell that divides
daughter cell
results of parental cells dividing
If parental cell has 46 chromosomes how many chromosomes does each daughter cell have following mitosis
46
when cell division begins, chromatin starts to condense and compact to form
visible rodlike sister chromatids held together at the centromere
DNA replication results in
duplicated chromosome, that consists of two sister chromatids held together at a centromere
spindle
a structure that appears and brings orderly distribution of chromosomes to the daughter cell nuclei
spindle
has a fiber that stretch between two poles(end), bundles of microtubules, protein cylinders found in the cytoplasm that can assemble and disassemble
centrosome
main microtubule organizing center of the cell, divides before mitosis so that each pole of spindle has a pair of centrosome
nucleus
large organelle containing the chromosomes and acting as a control center for the cells
Chromosome
rod shaped body in the nucleus seen during mitosis and meiosis that contains DNA and hereditary units or genes
nucleolus
organelle found inside the nucleus, composed largely of RNA for ribosome formation
chromatids
the two identical parts of a chromosome following DNA replication
centromere
constriction where duplicates (sister chromatids) of a chromosome are held together
centrosome
central microtubule organizing center of cells
centriole
short cylinder organelle in animal cells that contain microtubules and associated with formation of the spindle during cell division
Aster
short radiating fibers produced by the centrioles important during mitosis and meiosis
what are the phases of mitosis
prophase
metaphase
anaphase
telophase
early prophase
centrosomes have duplicated, chromatin is condensing into chromosomes and nuclear envelope is fragmenting
prophase
nucleolus has disappeared and duplicated chromosomes are visible, centrosome begins moving apart and spindle is in process
metaphase
chromatids are attached to a spindle fiber (sister chromatid), chromosomes are aligned at the equator
anaphase
sister chromatids part and become daughter chromosomes that move toward spindle poles, each pole receives the same number and kinds of chromosome as the parental cell
telophase
daughter cells are forming as nuclear envelopes and nucleoli reappear. chromosomes will become chromatin
cytokinesis
division of the cytoplasm accompanies mitosis, begins in anaphase, continues in telophase and reaches completion by the start of the next interphase
cytokinesis in animal cells
a cleavage furrow, an indentation of the membrane between the daughter nuclei, begins as anaphase draws to a close.
meiosis
form of nuclear division in which the chromosome number is reduced by half
diploid cell
nucleus contains homologous chromosomes
(look alike and carry the genes for the same traits
Meiosis prophase 1
chromosomes have duplicated, homologous chromosomes pair during synapsis and crossing over occurs
Meiosis prophase 11
cells have one chromosome from each (hp)
meiosis metaphase 1
homologous pairs align independently at the equator
meiosis metaphase 11
chromosomes align at the equator
meiosis anaphase 1
homologous chromosomes separate and move towards the pole
meiosis anaphase 11
sister chromatids separate and become daughter chromosomes
meiosis telophase 1
daughter cells have one chromosome from each homologous pair
meiosis telophase 11
spindles disappears, nuclei from and cytokinesis takes place
daughter cells
meiosis results in four haploid cells
interkinesis
chromosomes still consist of two chromatids
deletion
chromosome is shorter than usual because some portion is missing
duplication
chromosome is longer than usual because some portion is present twice over
inversion
chromosome is normal in length but some portion runs in the opposite direction
translocation
two chromosomes have switched portions and each switched portion is on the wrong chromosome
turner syndrome
ovaries never become functional
XO
Poly-X syndrome
47 chromosomes, no apparent physical abnormalities
XXX
klinefelter syndrome
testes are underdeveloped, and breasts may be enlarged
XXY
Jacobs syndrome
males are usually taller then average, tend to have speech and reading problems
XY
s stage
during what stage of the cell cycle does DNA replication occurs
anaphase
name the phase of cell division during which separation of sister chromatids occurs
cytokinesis
by what process does the cytoplasm of a human cell separates
propase
name the phase of cell division when duplicated chromosomes first appear
reproductive organ
where in humans would you expect to find meiosis taking place
homologous
what do you call chromosomes that look alike and carry genes for the same traits
anaphase
if homologues are separating, what phase is this
12
if the parental cell has 24 chromosomes, how many does each daughter cell have at the completion of meiosis 11
meiosis 1
name the type of cell division during which homologues pair
mitosis
name the type of cell division described by 2n---->2n
meiosis 11
does metaphase of mitosis, meiosis 1 or meiosis 11 have the haploid number of chromosomes at the equator of the spindle
when during the human life cycle is the diploid number of chromosomes restored
when the egg and sperm unite fertilazation
how does the alignment of chromosomes differ between metaphase of mitosis and metaphase of meiosis 1
in mitosis chromosomes align at the metaphase plate. In meiosis 1 homologous pairs align at the metaphase plate
a student is simulating meiosis 1 with homologous that are red-long and yellow-long. Describe the appearance of two non sister chromatids following cross over
you get recombinant chromosomes either all red or yellow and with crossing over you would get a chromosome that is part red and part yellow