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American Pageant 12th Edition

Checkers speech

Television speech given by Richard Nixon on September 23, 1952, when he was the Republican candidate for the Vice Presidency. Talked about his dog, Checkers. Said to have saved his career from a campaign contributions scandal.

Korean war armistice

demilitarization 1.25 miles from 38th parallel, political conference to be held in three months and peace treaty, both never happened. North = communist, South = independent, democratic.

General George Marshall

Sent by President Truman to negotiate a settlement between the Nationalists and the Communists. He was sent out of American frustration over corruption and small mindedness of the Chiang Regime. He was awarded the Nobel peace prize for his Marshall Plan to rebuild war-torn Europe.

Army-McCarthy hearings

1954 televised hearings on charges that Senator Joseph McCarthy was unfairly tarnishing the United States Army with charges of communist infiltration into the armed forces; hearings were the beginning of the end for McCarthy, whose bullying tactics were repeatedly demonstrated

Jim Crow laws

The "separate but equal" segregation laws state and local laws enacted in the Southern and border states of the United States and enforced between 1876 and 1965

Executive Order 8802

In 1941 FDR passed it which prohibited discriminatory employment practices by fed agencies and all unions and companies engaged in war related work. It established the Fair Employment Practices Commission to enforce the new policy.

Thurgood Marshall

American civil rights lawyer, first black justice on the Supreme Court of the United States. Marshall was a tireless advocate for the rights of minorities and the poor.

Rosa Park

An African-American civil rights activist, whom the U.S. Congress called "the first lady of civil rights", and "the mother of the freedom movement".

Earl Warren

Chief Justice during the 1950's and 1960's who used a loose interpretation to expand rights for both African-Americans and those accused of crimes. (Brown vs. Board of Ed)

Little Rock Central High School

Was the site of forced desegregation in 1957 when the governor of Alabama wouldn't allow the "Little Rock nine" access to the school. President Eisenhower then mobilized the 101st airborne division to force the school to admit the students.

Southern Christian Leadership Conference

An organization founded by MLK Jr., to direct the crusade against segregation. Its weapon was passive resistance that stressed nonviolence and love, and its tactic direct, though peaceful, confrontation.

Greensboro sit-ins

The Greensboro Sit-ins were protests where 4 students from the NC Agricultural and Technical College sat down at whites only lunch counter. Once they were there, they refused to move. Each day, they came back with many more protesters. Sometimes, there were over 100. These sit-ins led to the formation of the SNCC. Led to sit-ins across the country.

Student Non-Violent Coordinating Committee

Organized in the fall of 1960 by Reverend Martin Luther King, Jr. as a student civil rights movement inspired by sit-ins, it challenged the status quo and walked the back roads of Mississippi and Georgia to encourage Blacks to resist segregation and to register to vote

Indian New Deal

1930's legislation that gave Indians greater control of their own affairs and provided further funding for schools and hospitals.

Interstate Highway Act

1956 law that authorized the spending of $32 billion to build 41,000 miles of highway


1955 two larger labor unions united. American Federation Labor- Congress of Industerial Organization.

John Foster Dulles

Eisenhower's secretary of state, 1953-1959; moralistic in his belief that Communism was evil and must be confronted with "brinkmanship" (the readiness and willingness to go to war) and "massive retaliation" (the threat of using nuclear weapons).

Massive retaliation

the Eisenhower administration's policy doctrine for containing Soviet communism by pledging to respond to any act of aggression with the most destructive capabilities available, including nuclear weapons

Geneva Summit

USSR met with US, Britain, and France to begin discussions on European security and disarmament.

Hungarian uprising

Hungary against Russia Gain independence from Russia *A new Hungarian government in 1956 announced its withdrawal from the Warsaw Pact

Dien Bien Phu

French fortress in northern Vietnam that surrendered in 1954 to the Viet Minh; the defeat caused the French to abandon Indochina and set the stage for the Geneva Conference, which divided the region and led to American involvement in Vietnam.

Geneva Conference

A 1954 conference that divided Vietnam at the seventeenth parallel

Ngo Dinh Diem

American ally in South Vietnam from 1954 to 1963; his repressive regime caused the Communist Viet Cong to thrive in the South and required increasing American military aid to stop a Communist takeover. he was killed in a coup in 1963.

Warsaw Pact

The 1955 treaty binding the Soviet Union and countries of eastern Europe in an alliance against the North Atlantic Treaty Organization.

Shah of Iran

Great friend of the US for two and a half decades but Iranians want to nationalize their oil and improve economy, sparks Iranian Revolution and Shah is overthrown (1979)

Suez Crisis

Nasser took over the Suez Canal to show separation of Egypt from the West, but Israel, the British, Iraq, and France were all against Nasser's action. The U.S. stepped in before too much serious fighting began.

Eisenhower Doctrine

1957: It pledged US military and economic aid to Middle Eastern nations threatened by Communist aggression


an organization of countries formed in 1961 to agree on a common policy for the production and sale of petroleum.


First artificial Earth satellite, it was launched by Moscow in 1957 and sparked U.S. fears of Soviet dominance in technology and outer space. It led to the creation of NASA and the space race.

Missile gap

The United States and the Soviet Union were involved in a race to discover who had more missiles and war equipment. The missile gap was the difference in how much the United States had compared to how much the Soviet Union had.


Formed to create satellites and missiles to compete with the USSR after Sputnik.

National Defense and Education Act

(NDEA) (1958) After the Russian satellite "Sputnik" was successfully launched, there was a critical comparison of the Russian to the American education system. The American education system was already seen as too easygoing. So in 1958 Congress made the NDEA, authorizing $887 million in loans to needy college students and in grants for the purpose of improving the teaching of the sciences and languages.

The Kitchen Debate

Who: NIxon and Khrushchev, What: First high-level meeting between the Soviet and the US leaders. US and USSR agreed to be more open with each other., When: 1955
Where: Model home of a kitchen in which all Americans could afford., Significance: It was broadcast for the world to see and many viewed it as a political stunt.

Nixon-Kennedy Debates

May have tipped the scales during the presidential campaign of 1960. Demonstrated the importance of image in a television age. (Kennedy = young and handsome)

Betty Friedan

1960s; wrote "The Feminine Mystique," an account of housewives' lives in which they suboordinated their own aspirations to the needs of men; bestseller was an inspiration for many women to join the women's rights movement

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