AP Euro Chapter 26/27
How did the wester influence affect Japan?
It became a westernized country that industrialized and became an imperial power
How did the Chinese act towards Western society?
They had disinterest in Europe and wanted to be isolated
What were characteristics of New Imperialism?
Military force, political domination, and social darwinism
Who was the victor in the Fashoda incident?
Who was involved in the Fashoda incident?
Britain vs. France
Who usually left Europe to settle elsewhere?
Rural small landowners and village craftsmen
What caused gaps in the standard of living and average wealth among nations?
What was the most common/persuasive argument against imperialism?
That European control of nonwhites was immoral and hypocritical
What was the most striking difference between new and old imperialism?
New imperialism's formal political control
Why were Jews least likely to return to their native land?
Because of the violent anti-semitism in Eastern Europe
What two canals were vital to trade?
The Panama and the Suez canal
What was decided at the Berlin conference?
Effective occupation as the basis of territorial claims, pledges to stop the slave trade, and recognition of Leopold's personal rule over the Congo
What was effective occupation?
No single european power would be able to claim the entire continent
What areas in Africa were not controlled by Europeans
Liberia and Ethiopia
What did anti-imperialism leaders in Africa and Asia do?
Used Western ideologies to shape their movements
What were products of British rule in India?
economic development, improved educational system, a powerful unified state
Who attempted to modernize Egypt?
What did Khedive Ismail's plan do?
resulted in bankruptcy and foreign intervention
Who opened Japan to the West?
Commodore Perry of the U.S.A.
What tactic did Perry use?
What determined how Africa would be occupied by the European nations?
Conference of Berlin
Who led the Conference of Berlin?
What treaty ended the Opium war?
Treaty of Nanking
What were three terms of the treaty of Nanking?
Britain would get the island of Hong Kong, China had to pay an indemnity of 100,000, and China had to open up 4 more cities to foreign trade
Who controlled the Congo Region?
Leopold II of Belgium
What is another name for the Qing Dynasty?
The Manchu Dynasty
What happened to the Manchu Dynasty?
It was on the verge of collapse, but came back because of new and effective leadership, and lessened foreign aggression
Who was in control of the Manchu dynasty?
Empress Tzu Hsi
What did the chinese government do to meet foreign challenge?
Launched a hundred days of reform
How did the Manchu Dynasty finally fall?
It was overthrown by people who wanted a republic
Who were the Boxers?
Chinese traditionalists who turned back to ancient practices , political conservatism, and hatred of foreigners
What was the Boxer Rebellion?
When Boxer secret societies rebelled and turned toward ancient practices
Who were the Sun Yat-sen?
Sought to overthrow the dynasty and establish a republic
What was the Sino-Japanese war?
Between the Japanese and the Chinese, when the Japs easily defeated China.
What was the Sino-Japanes war over?
Taiwan, Korea, and Manchuria
What was the result of the Sino-Japanese war?
Japan was given Taiwan, and Korea and Manchuria were independent, which left them open for Japanese penetration
What was the Meiji Restoration?
The government abolished old feudal structure, unified the state, and tried to catch up with the West
Who is the Shogun?
The leader who held real power, the emperor was just a figurehead
Who were samurai?
What sparked rebellion in India?
Animal fat used in bullets because cows are sacred to Hindus and pigs were sacred to Muslims
What were causes of rebellion in India?
Growing resentment of foreign rule and nationalism
What was the Great Rebellion?
When India tried to drive out the British
What were two other names for the Great Rebellion?
The Sepoy rebellion and the Indian war for Independence
What was the Indian National Congress?
A group founded by educated Indians
What did the Indian National Congress demand?
Complete Independence and the same equality and self government they grant the white settlers
Who was Ghandi and what did he push for?
A leader of the Indian National Congress, and he pushed for a passive resistance
How did the British treat Indians?
They forced them to do hard labor, discriminated against them, but also grand many beneficial reforms
What did Joseph Conrad's "Heart of Darkness" refer to?
The Belgian Congo and how bad it was, along with the conditions. He referred to how Leopold's heart was full of darkness
What was the "white man's burden"?
That it was their duty to spread civilization to backwards people
What was the cause of the Fashoda incident?
Britain and France both wanted the last unclaimed territory of Sudan, they almost went to war over it
Why did France back down in the Fashoda incident?
Because of the Dreyfus Affair
Who was Henry Stanley?
A journalist and adventurer sent by Leopold to the Congo Basin
Who was Cecil Rhodes?
A british man that believed Britain should control all of Africa
Who were the Boers?
Decedents of Dutch colonists who had settled the Cape in the 17th century
What was the Boer war?
When a war broke out between the British and Afrikaners over Cape Town
Who won the Boer war?
What was the Great Trek?
When the Boers moved into central Africa to settle because of the Boer war
What was Bismark's system of alliances meant to do?
To isolate France and restrain A-H and Russia
What are the 4 major causes of WWI
Militarism, Alliances, Imperialism, and Nationalism
Why did William II dismiss Bismarck?
He wanted to control things himself, and because of his friendly relations with Russia
What was the Three Emperors League?
Linked the monarchs of A-H, Germany, and Russia in an alliance against radical movements
What happened when William II didn't renew the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty?
France began to court Russia, offering loans, arms, and friendship
Why did the Russian-German Reinsurance Treaty form?
Because Russia didn't re-enter the 3 emperors treaty
Who was the "sick man of Europe" and why?
The Ottoman Empire because they were consistently getting weaker
Why did Britain feel threatened by Germany?
Because Germany began to expand its battle fleet, and Britain felt the need to have the biggest one in Europe
What was the Moroccan Crisis?
France controlled Morocco, but Germany wanted it, so they rattled their swords and insisted on and international conference
What was the Algesires Conference?
The conference that decided who get morocco
Who got Morocco and why?
France because everyone thought William II was a bully
Who was in the triple alliance to begin with?
A-H, Germany, and Italy
Who was in the tripe entente to begin with?
France, Russia, and Britain
How did Balkan Nationalism affect WWI?
Many of the Balkan regions wanted autonomy, so they revolted against the Ottomans
Who helped the Balkans and why?
Russia because they felt that they were "Slavic Brothers"
What did A-H get in the Balkans?
What happens to Franz Ferdinand of A-H?
He is assassinated while on a good will tour in Bosnia
Who assassinated Franz Ferdinand?
The "black hand", a secret Serbian society
Who does A-H think killed Franz Ferdinand?
The Serbian Government
What were Serbia's ultimatums from A-H?
They must stop the Black Hand, demanded the dismissal of all Serbian officials and to replace them, and that A-H would go into Serbia and investigate
What ultimatum did Serbia deny?
A-H going into Serbia to investigate
Why did A-H declare war on Serbia?
Because they refused the ultimatum
What does Germany give to A-H and what does it mean?
A "blank check" that basically means Germany will support A-H if they choose to wage war against Serbia
Why is France angry with Germany?
Because Germany tried to isolate France
What does A-H decide to do with Serbia, and what do both their allies do?
They decide to declare war on Serbia, and Russia and Germany both begin to mobilize
What happens between Russia and Germany over the Balkans?
Germany declares war on Russia because they were helping the Serbs
Why does Germany declare war on France?
Because they wouldn't stay out of the war between Germany and Russia because they are allies
Why does Italy drop out of the Triple Alliance?
Because it was only supposed to be a defensive alliance
Why does Italy join the Allied Powers?
Because they were promised land from A-H if they won
What plan does Germany come up with to quickly defeat France?
The Schlieffen Plan
What is involved in the Shlieffen Plan?
Germany enters France through Belgium to quickly defeat France?
Why does the Shlieffen Plan fail?
Because Belgium holds them back
Why does Germany want to defeat France?
So they don't have to fight a two-front war
Why does Britain join WWI?
Because they have a secret alliance with Belgium, and Belgium's neutrality was violated
What battle in Belgium was Germany stopped at?
The Battle of the Marne
Who was in the Central Powers?
Germany, A-H, Ottomans, and Bulgaria
Who were the Allied Powers?
Britain, France, Russia, Serbia, and Romania
What was Wilson's 14 Points?
President Wilson's peace plan for after the war
What was WWI first known as?
The Great War
Why was the Western Front so brutal?
Because they had trench warfare and a stalemate
What was a stalemate?
A tie, where not on country was gaining a profound amount of land over the other
Who was involved in the Balkan Front?
A-H vs. Serbia.
How did the war effect women?
Women had to take the jobs that men left when going to the front
Why did the U.S. enter the war?
Because of the sinking of the Lusitania and the Zimmerman telegram
What was the Zimmerman telegram?
A telegram from Germany to Mexico, proposing an alliance if they tried to enter the U.S. and take land
What was the Easter Rebellion in Ireland?
The Irish tried to revolt and gain their independence, but Britain won
After what battle did the tides turn on Russia?
The battle of Tandemburg
What was the treaty of Brest-Lotvsk?
The treaty in which Russia leaves the war
Who signed the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia and Germany
What was the result of the treaty of Brest-Litovsk?
Russia lost 1/4 of land and people to Germany
What is a battle of attrition?
Giving everything you have and letting your enemy bleed to death and force them to give up
What was the battle of Verdun?
A German offensive that gained nothing but killed many
Why was Germany weakened?
Because the Allies had a naval blockade, which led to many shortages
What is the Armistice Day?
When Germany believes Wilson's 14 points will be the basis of the treaty, so they sign it because there is not harsh repercussions
What day was the Armistice signed on?
How was treaties were written at the Versailles conference? And which one was the most famous?
6, and the treaty of Versialle
What were the major powers known as and who were they?
The Big Four-Britian, France, USA, and Italy
What did France want for Germany?
Revenge and security from Germany
What was the League of Nations? Who proposed it?
A permanent international organization that would protect member states from aggression and future wars/ Woodrow Wilson
Why did the US Senate reject the Treaty?
Because they wanted to be isolationists
Did the League of Nations ever happen?
Yes, but the US never joined it
Why was there revolution in Germany?
Because of military defeat and a desire for peace
What was the German Socialist Party?
Marxian Socialists that ended the war when they gained power