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Anatomy chapter 13

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Which systems work together to supply the body with oxygen and dispose of carbon dioxide
Cardiovascular & Respiratory
The organs of the respiratory system include...
-Nose
-Pharynx
-Larynx
-Trachea
-Bronchi
-Lungs
-Alveoli
-Smaller branches (bronchioles)
*The respiratory conducting passageways are responsible for...
-Humidity air
-Purify air
-Warm incoming air
-Allowing air to reach the lungs
What is the only externally visible part of the respiratory system?
The nose
Parts of the nose include ....
-Nasal septum
-nasal cavity
-nostrils or external nares
What of the nasal mucosa create a gentle current that moves contaminated mucus toward the throat/pharynx?
The cilia
WHat happens to the contaminated mucus if the ciliated cells in the nasal mucosa are functioning properly?
Moves mucus towards the pharynx --> then swallow
What happens to the contaminated mucus if the ciliated cells in the nasal mucosa are not functioning properly (e.g. if it is very cold)
Cilia becomes sluggish=runny nose
The nasal cavity is surrounded by a ring of...?
Paranasal sinuses
What bones house these sinuses? (4)
-frontal sphernoid
-ethmoid-maxillary
*What is the function of the sinuses?
-moisten air
-produce mucus
-lighten the skull
-act as resonance chambers for speech
What are clusters of lymphatic tissue found in the pharynx?
Tonsils
*List the 3 main types of tonsil tissue?
Pharyngeal
palentine
lingual
Adenoids are also called..?
Pharyngeal tonsils
What is another name for the throat?
Pharynx
The windpipe is also known as what?
The Trachea
---- in the trachea propel contaminated mucus toward the ---- to be ----or spat out
Cilia, Pharynx/throat, swallowed
Another name for the voice box
Larynx
What is the "Adam's apple?"
Shield shaped thyroid cartilage
What protects the superior opening of the larynx therefore restricting anything but air to enter the trachea?
Epiclottus
What is the Epiclottus also known as?
the "guardian of the airways"
What is the slit like passageway between the vocal cords?
Glottis
Formed by the division of the trachea and lead to the right and left lungs respectfully
The right and left Primary Bronchi
Large organs that occupy the entire thoracic cavity and house the alveoli
Lungs
The base of the lungs rest on
The diaphragm
*The narrow part of the lungs
Apex
*Is the apex is located on the most superior or inferior region of each lung?
Superior
How many lobes does the right lung have?
3
How many lobes does the left lung have?
2
The most central area of the thoracic cavity
The mediastium
The mediastium houses the
Heart, the greater blood vessels, bronchi, esophagus, etc.
*The surface of each lung is covered with a visceral serosa called the pulmonary or
Visceral pleura
The walls of the thoracic cavity are lined by the
Parietal pleura
THe fluid secreted by the membranes allows the
Lungs to glide over the thorax wall during breathing.
It also allows the layers to
cling together
What can easily slide past one another, but strongly resist being pulled apart?
Plaurae
Serve as conduits to and from the respiratory zone
The conducting zone
Smallest conducting passageways of this system
Bronchioles
The only site of gas exchange
The respiratory zone
The respiratory zone includes the following structures:
-Respiration
-Bronchioles
-Alveolar ducts
-Alveolar sacs
-Alveoli
Gas exchange occurs by simple
Diffusion
Air moving in and out of the lungs
Pulmonary ventilation
The total amount of exchangeable air
Vital Capacity
*List the 4 distinct events that occur during respiration
-Pulmonary ventilation
-external respiration
-respiratory gas transport
-enternal respiration
Breathng
pulmonary ventilation
Gas exchange between pulmonary blood and alveoli
External respiration
O2 and CO2 carried to/from lungs by the bloodstream
Respiratory gas transport
Gas exchange between capillaries and tissue cells
Enternal respiration
Air flowing in (inhaling) is also known as
Inspiration
Air leaving (exhaling) is also known as
Expiration
The amount of air coming into and out of the lungs with each breath during normal breathing
Tidal Volume (TV)
The amount of air forcibly taken in above TV
Inspiratory Reserve Volume
The amount of air forced out during a deep breath out
Expiratory Reserve Volume
Cannot be voluntarily forced out and remains in the lungs
Residual volume
Extremely slow breathing
Hypoventilation
Extremely fast breathing
Hyperventilation
Oxygen is transported in the blood in 2 ways
On red blood cells as oxyhemoglobin
and a small amount dissolved in the plasma
Most carbon dioxide is transported in plasma as
Bicarbonite ion
The bluish cast that results from inadequate oxygenation (---) of the tissues is called?
(hypoxia) cyanosis
*Normal breathing is called
Eupnia
*Cessation of breathing
Apnea
*The condition that leads to death of many full term newborn infants is called
sids
A group of diseases exemplified by chronic bronchitis and emphysema and is major cause of death & disability in the US
Chronic Obstructive Pulmonary Disease (COPD)
*Emphysema causes the following:
-Barrel chest
-decreased lung elasticity
-lung fibrosis
-enlarged alveoli
*Caused by the inhalation of food or other foreign substances into the lungs, thus leading to pneumonia
Aspiration pneumonia
*Involves using the uvula to close the oral cavity off from the pharynx in order to clear the upper respiratory passages
Sneezing
*Sudden inspirations resulting from spasms of the diaphragm are
Hiccups
*Formerly believed to be triggered by low oxygen. It is a deep inspiration that ventilates all the alveoli
Yawning
*An act to clear the lower respiratory passageways
Coughing
*Primarily an emotionally induced mechanism that involves the release of air in a number of short breaths, similar to laughing
crying
*An emotionally induced response that produces air movements similar to crying
Laughing