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HJS FINAL EXAM
Terms in this set (49)
"Abomination of Desolation"
In response to the Jews celebrating his "death", Antiochus IV enters the Holy of Holies, sets up an altar to Zeus, and sacrifices a pig on it
Abraham Ibn Ezra
Amorim and Sevoraim
Seleucid leader (Seleucids were a dynasty of Greek rulers - post Alexander - ruled a portion of Alex.'s empire from their base in Antioch in Syria) who desecrated the Jerusalem Temple in 168 BC through sacrificing a pig there
In Hebrew, "Beit" means house. "Midrash" comes from the word root that means to seek, to search out, to dig for meaning. A Beit Midrash is a House of Study.
creatures which are usually depicted guarding something sacred
a person who has received Christian baptism or is a believer in Jesus Christ and his teachings. (for christianity you don't have to be Jewish)
Dead Sea Scrolls
(Old Testament) a collection of written scrolls (containing nearly all of the Old Testament) found in a cave near the Dead Sea in the late 1940s.
Name given to the unit of the Old Testament containing Deuteronomy, Joshua, Judges, 1-2 Samuel, and 1-2 Kings. One leading theory argues that an anonymous editor (called the "Deuteronomist," and abbreviated Dtr) combined several sources into a long document detailing Israel's history theologically. After Jerusalem's fall in 586 BC, Dtr sought to interpret the tragedy as well as to explain the fall of northern Israel in 722 BC. He attempted to answer the question, "What went wrong?"
any group migration or flight from a country or region; dispersion. Particularly used in relation to Jews scattered by Romans in 70 CE or to Africans spread to new places during the Atlantic Slave Trade.
name for God in Jewish mysticism, esp kabbalah, means the endless, the absolute infinite whose essence is unrevealed and unknowable.
A group of pious, ultraconservative Jews who left the Temple of Jerusalem and began a community by the Dead Sea, known as Qumran.
A major prophet of the 6th century BCE, exiled to Babylon, who was distinguished by his strange visions and priestly interests. The name means "God strengthens"
A post exilic Jewish priest who returned to Jersualem from Babylon during the reign of the Persian emperor Artaxerxes to proclaim and enforce obedience to the Mosaic Torah in the partly restored Jerusalem community
The part of the Talmud that contains rabbinical commentaries and analysis of the Mishnah.
Reincarnation that takes place during pregnancy according to Judaism.
During the 5th century BC Greek life and culture was expanded through means of public spaces. Gymnasiums were built in suburban areas because they were typically cooler and in the shade while also closer to a source of water.
place of the naked
Jewish legal decision and the parts of the Talmud dealing with laws
the two centuries when classical Greek culture spread around the Mediterranean Sea, including Egypt and the Middle East; dates approximately from the death of Alexander the Great in 323 BCE until the Roman conquest of Greece in 146 BCE. The word Hellenistic is derived from the Greek word meaning "to imitate the Greeks"
The son of wicked Ahaz who became the second best king of Judah, helped organize the books of Psalms and Proverbs and the greatest Passover celebration since Solomon. Righteous king of Judah; protected Jerusalem from Sennacherib and the Assyrians
son of David ;King of Judah; was 8 yrs. old when he began to reign; Did everything that was right in the eyes of the Lord.
Judah HaNasi (the Prince)
Nasi of the Sanhedrin and grandson of Rabban Gamleil; credited with editing the Mishnah; sometimes called "Rabbi"; switched at birth with Antoninus.
Jewish mysticism that teaches that God can best be known through the heart; main text is the Zohar
-In 7th-10th century there is a community of Jews who say that rabbis are frauds and the only thing you should follow is the torah (Mikra). they didnt buy into the rabbinic authority and started their own school contesting the rabbinic authority. they are known as the and they were scriptureless
king of judah who destroyed all his father hezekiah's reforms and persecuted the persecuters of the true God. After many disasters, he repented and turned back to God
"God's chosen (anointed) one" - the awaited king of the Jews; this term is derived from the Hebrew language
A collection of rabbinic discussions regarding interpretation of the law of Moses; the Mishnah forms one major part of the Jewish Talmud.
A jewish court official (cupbearer) living at the Persian capital who persuaded the emperor Artaxerxes I to send him to Judah where he rebuilt Jerusalem's walls, and with the priest Ezra, implemented numerous social and religious reforms
Was passed down orally in an unbroken chain from generation to generation until its contents were finally committed to writing following the destruction of the Second Temple in 70 CE, when Jewish civilization was faced with an existential threat.
539-332 BCE, started by Cyrus, good period for Jerusalem because they returned and rebuilt the temple
Original meaning, or exegesis, "plain- sense" of Scripture. Reading contextually.
From the Aramaic word perishaya meaning "the separated ones"; these members of a Jewish sect active during the earthly life of Jesus were distinguished by their strict observance of the Law. Like Jesus, these people taught the resurrection of the body.
A city-state in ancient Greece.
argument. analogy between two similar cases. It takes ruling from one case and applies it to another. If it is the case in the minor ruling, then it has to be the case in the major ruling too.
An ancient Essene monastery on the northwestern shore of the Dead Sea. Near it were found the ancient Dead Sea scrolls.
A highly respected teacher of Jewish law or theology
Was essential to keeping Jews from splitting into different sects.
Who says "if not for the pleasures of your Torah I would have been lost to my struggles"?
-important Jewish scholar of the Torah and the Talmud.
Great commentator; wrote nearly all commentary of all Tanakh and Talmud and stands as official understanding and the true meaning of those texts
A Jewish sect that believed in accommodating Judaism to contemporary life and circumstances. Unlike the Pharisees, this sect did not believe in the resurrection of the body.
Kabbalah - devine powers of god, 10 powers (tree of life)
A third-century BC Greek translation of the Scriptures (Old Testament) made by seventy-two Jewish scholars. This translation was accepted by the early Christians as authoritative and inspired. The writers of the New Testament quoted from it.
A Jewish house of worship
The collection of Jewish rabbinic discussion pertaining to law, ethics, and tradition consisting of the Mishnah and the Gemara.
Rabbinic sages of the first two centuries A.D. whose sayings are compiled in the Mishnah
Scripture study that looks to the various early manuscripts of the biblical texts.
-What is needed to repair and restore the divine sparks(fixing and rectification)
The first five books of Jewish Scripture, which they believe are by Moses, are called this
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