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Biology Midterm Study Guide
Terms in this set (88)
What is cell theory?
The Cell theory state that (1) all living things are made up of cells, (2) cells are the basic units of structure and function in living things, and (3) new cells are produced from existing cells.
Principals of Cell theory
cells are the basic units of life, all living things are made of cells, and all cells are produced by existing cells
A network of long protein strands in the cytosol that helps support the cell
Control center of the cell
A cell structure that forms a maze of passageways in which proteins and other materials are carried from one part of the cell to another.
Cytoplasmic organelles at which proteins are synthesized.
A system of membranes that modifies and packages proteins for export by the cell
A small elevation that contains fluid.
Enclosed by two membranes with the inner membrane folded; contains its own DNA
A fluid filled organelle that stores enzymes or water
An organelle containing digestive enzymes
Help organize cell division
A rigid layer of organic material surrounding delicate cell membranes of bacteria
Capture energy from sunlight and use it to produce food for the cell
too much water, cell may burst
the size and water remain constant
not enough water, cell will shrivel up and die
Requires NO energy, Movement of molecules from high to low concentration, Moves with the concentration gradient
Movement of specific molecules across cell membranes through protein channels
Energy-requiring process that moves material across a cell membrane against a concentration difference
A process in which a cell engulfs extracellular material through an inward folding of its plasma membrane.
Process by which a cell releases large amounts of material
- a type of white blood cell that helps defend the body by engulfing and destroying bacteria and other invaders
agent that causes diseases
Chemical agents that selectively speed up chemical reactions without being consumed by the reaction.
Catalysts for chemical reactions in living things
A molecule that has electrically charged areas; water is a polar molecule
Plants use the sun's energy to convert water and carbon dioxide into sugars
Process that releases energy by breaking down glucose and other food molecules in the presence of oxygen
Process by which some organisms, such as certain bacteria, use chemical energy to produce carbohydrates
(adenosine triphosphate) main energy source that cells use for most of their work
(Adenosine Diphosphate) The compound that remains when a phosphate group is removed from ATP, releasing energy
a chemical phenomenon in which an organic molecule splits into simpler substances
DNA Double Helix
DNA polymer strands held together by H bonds
DNA tightly coiled around proteins
Clusters of DNA, RNA, and proteins in the nucleus of a cell
DNA is further twisted to save space
Cell grows, performs its normal functions, and prepares for division; consists of G1, S, and G2 phases
Chromosomes become visable, nuclear envelop dissolves, spindle forms
- chromosomes align
After the chromosome seperates, the cell seals off, Final Phase of Mitosis.
The cytoplasm completely splits, organelles divide and are split between the 2 new cells
series of events that cells go through as they grow and divide
A reproductive process that involves two parents that combine their genetic material to produce a new organism, which differs from both parents
Process by which a single parent reproduces by itself
A form of asexual reproduction in single-celled organisms by which one cell divides into two cells of the same size
Fusion of male and female gametes.
First Cell Division
occurs about 12-36 hours after sperm and egg bind.
In animal development, a series of cell and tissue movements in which the blastula-stage embryo folds inward, producing a three-layered embryo, the gastrula.
The hollow ball of cells marking the end stage of cleavage during early embryonic development
cells that break away from the endoderm
organs that carry out a similar function
Groups of tissues that work together to perform a specific function
A group of cells that work together to perform a function
Basic unit of life
unspecialized cells that retain the ability to become a wide variety of specialized cells
Benefits of Stem Cell Research
could potentially be able to cure things such as when injured brain cells and paralysis caused by spinal cord injury
What is SCNT?
Somatic cell nuclear transplant
Stem cell lines
The group of cells that comes from a single stem cell
A close relationship between two species that benefits at least one of the species.
3 Types of Symbiosis
mutualism, commensalism, parasitism
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is harmed
A relationship between two organisms of different species where one benefits and the other is neither harmed nor benefited
A relationship between two species in which both species benefit
A process of asexual reproduction in eukaryotic cells
Cell division that produces reproductive cells in sexually reproducing organisms
all cells unique
smaller than egg
Main contribution is DNA
Starts with a round cell
sperm is bigger
Gives share of DNA
Contributes to organelles
Molecules are not spread out evenly
Egg that results from a Germ Cell is haploid
Process in which homologous chromosomes exchange portions of their chromatids during meiosis.
Independent segregation of genes during the formation of gametes
a monk who began the history of genetics, experimented with pea plants a.k.a "the father of genetics"
a trait observed when at least one dominate allele for a characteristic is inherited (Capital Letter)
A trait that is apparent only when two recessive alleles for the same characteristic are inherited (Lowercase Letter)
the ratio of the genotypes that appear in offspring
a ratio that shows the varied outcomes that results from a genetic cross and is based on physical appearance alone
A cross between individuals that involves one pair of contrasting traits
A cross between individuals that have different alleles for the same gene
Traits that tend to be inherited together as a consequence of an association between their genes
(genetics) the process of locating genes on a chromosome (through a diagram)
the process of making a copy of DNA
(genetics) the organic process whereby the DNA sequence in a gene is copied into mRNA
the process whereby genetic information coded in messenger RNA directs the formation of a specific protein at a ribosome in the cytoplasm
A condition in which neither of two alleles of a gene is dominant or recessive. (Speckled Effect of chickens)
Cases in which one allele is not completely dominant over another
combined effect of two or more genes on a single character
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