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Development and Characteristics of Learners with Exceptional Learning Needs

Development and Characteristics of Learners with Exceptional Learning Needs
504 Plans
An educational plan developed to identify and design an educational program to meet the needs of an individual eligible under the Rehabilitation Act of 1973.
Since 1876, AAMR has been providing leadership in the field of intellectual disabilities. AAMR is the oldest and largest interdisciplinary organization of professionals (and others) concerned about intellectual disabilities and related disabilities.
The process of handling new information by altering existing schema to incorporate new and contradictory information and experiences.
Antisocial behavior
A cluster of behavior patterns including disobedience, aggression, temper tantrums, lying, stealing, and violence.
Anxiety disorder
A disorder characterized by fear and excessive worries, which results in demonstrated distress, tension, or uneasiness.
Association for Children with Learning Disabilities (also LDA)
LDA was formed in 1964 by a group of concerned parents on behalf of children with learning disabilities. LDA is devoted to defining and finding solutions for the broad spectrum of learning disabilities.
Auditory processing difficulties
The inability to recognize a difference between phoneme sounds; also the difficulty in identifying words that are the same and words that are different when the difference is a single phoneme element (big - pig).
Chromosomal disorder
A defect due not to a single gene, but to an excess or deficiency of the genes contained in a whole chromosome or chromosome segment. Down's syndrome is the most common chromosomal disorder (1 out of 800). Affected individuals have an extra copy of chromosome 21.
Applies to a disability that is ongoing and impedes an individuals ability to learn without special services or reasonable accommodation offered in the general or special education classroom.
Computed Axial Tomography (also CAT
CAT scanning : CT : CAT-Scan : Computed Tomography (CT) imaging): An imaging technique that develops a combination of soft tissue, bone, and blood vessels to assist medical professionals identify difficulties in the body.
Conduct disorders
Include a group of behavior disorders including disobedience, disruptiveness, fighting, and tantrums.
Council for Children with Behavioral Disorders
The official division of the Council for Exceptional Children (CEC) committed to promoting and facilitating the education and general welfare of children and youth with emotional or behavioral disorders.
Council for Exceptional Children (also CEC)
The largest international professional organization dedicated to improving educational outcomes for individuals with exceptionalities, students with disabilities, and/or the gifted.
Council for Learning Disabilities (also CLD)
An international organization concerned about issues related to students with learning disabilities.
Diagnostic and Statistical Manual of Mental Disorders, Fourth Edition (also DSM IV)
Better known as the DSM-IV, the manual is published by the American Psychiatric Association and covers all mental health disorders for both children and adults. It also lists known causes of these disorders, statistics in terms of gender, age at onset, and prognosis as well as some research concerning the optimal treatment approaches.
Division for Children with Learning Disabilities (also DLD)
DLD is one 17 divisions of the Council for Exceptional Children. DLD is the largest international professional organization focused on learning disabilities.
Down syndrome
Or Down's syndrome is the most common and readily identifiable chromosomal condition associated with intellectual disabilities. It is caused by a chromosomal abnormality: for some unexplained reason, an accident in cell development results in 47 instead of the usual 46 chromosomes.
A term indicating lack of ability to perform mathematical functions. The condition is associated with neurological dysfunction.
Often associated with poor handwriting or the inability to perform the motor movements required for handwriting.
A severe reading disorder where the individual has difficulty or is not able to learn to read or does not acquire fluent and efficient reading skills.
Eligibility determinations
The processes used by school personnel (e.g., teachers, school psychologists, guidance counselors) to determine whether a child has a disability and whether the academic, social and/or behavioral problems associated with this disability require the need of specialized services.
Fragile X syndrome
Fragile X syndrome is named after a site on the long arm of the X chromosome that is elongated and appears partly broken or 'fragile'. The spectrum of Fragile X syndrome ranges from normal development to developmental delay, learning disabilities, mild to severe intellectual disability, autistic-like behavior and attention problems.
Grace Fernald
An early educator of children with learning disabilities who used a kinesthetic approach involving writing in the air as well as tracing words in large written or scripted format.
Information-processing deficits
A disorder in the flow of information, the memory system, and the interrelationships among the elements of cognitive processing.
International Dyslexia Association (also IDA)
A non-profit organization dedicated to helping individuals with dyslexia, their families and the communities that support them.
Learned helplessness
A trait among students with mild disabilities in which they exhibit passiveness and do not take on the responsibility of their own learning.
Left hemisphere
The left hemisphere of the brain receives sensory information from and controls movement of the right side of the body.
Left temporal lobe
Situated at what one might call the bottom of the cerebrum. There we find the nerve cells and interconnections that create the temporal-sequential relationship between the units of a sentence, which have a direct impact on one's ability to read.
Magnetic Resonance Imaging (also MRI)
An imaging technique used primarily in medical settings to produce high quality images of the inside of the human body, specifically the brain.
Marion Monroe
A well-known psychologist and educator; Mrs. Monroe authored Growing into Reading, and other professional books.
Mental age
Mental age for an intelligence test score is expressed as the chronological age for which a given level of performance is average or typical. An individual's mental age is then divided by his chronological age and multiplied by 100, yielding an intelligence quotient (IQ).
Mild intellectual disabilities
Often referred to individuals with intellectual disabilities whose IQ falls between 50 and 75.
Specific techniques involving the use of memory cues that are used for assisting storage of memory.
Moderate intellectual disabilities
Often referred to individuals with intellectual disabilities whose IQ falls between 55 and 40
Mood disorder
Also known as affective disorders, are characterized by their extremes in highs and lows in both intensity and duration.
National Institute of Mental Health
One of 27 components of the National Institutes of Health (NIH), the Federal government's principal biomedical and behavioral research agency. NIH is part of the U.S. Department of Health and Human Services.
The process of capturing images of the brain to better understand strengths and weaknesses in its development. Examples include MRIs, CTs, SPECTs, PETs, Carotid Ultrasound, and Transcranial Doppler.
Experts who study the development of the brain and related disabilities that result from inappropriate development, trauma, or the like.
Oppositional defiant disorder
A pattern of behavior characterized by active noncompliance and other forms of hostile responses to requests by teachers and parents.
Orton-Gillingham Method
Uses structured, systematic, multi-sensory (visual, auditory, kinesthetic, and tactile) teaching methods. This approach is an alternative language arts approach for students with dyslexia and other students who are not learning through traditional methods.
Other health impaired
A category included in the Individuals with Disabilities Education Act (IDEA that includes conditions that result in limited strength, vitality, or alertness, including a heightened alertness with respect to the educational environment, and that adversely affect a student's educational progress. Chronic and acute conditions are included, but conditions primarily affecting the musculoskeletal systems are not included.
Phenylketonuria (also PKU)
A genetic condition that prevents the metabolism of the amino acid phenylalanine.
Positron Emission Tomography (also PET
PET-Scan): A medical imaging technique that can identify and diagnose difficulties in the body and brain development including cancer, Alzheimer's disease, tumors, and brain damage.
Profound intellectual disabilities
Often referred to individuals with intellectual disabilities whose IQ falls below approximately 25.
A process that focuses on signs and symptoms of mental disorders, tries to describe, operationalize and systemize them, for example, in a hierarchical model.
Pull-out programs
Educational program in the K-12 school environment where students with disabilities are separated from the general education setting and served in a separate classroom for specific educational and related service programs.
Right hemisphere
The right hemisphere of the brain receives sensory information from and controls movement of the left side of the body.
Samuel Kirk: A pioneer in the field of learning disabilities, was the first to use and define the term learning disabilities to identify a population of children who had challenges in learning but not due to previously identified disabilities (1963).
Samuel Orton (1879 - 1948)
Attempted to explain the occurrence of language disabilities in children who had not suffered brain injury yet displayed symptoms similar to those exhibited by the adults who had sustained language loss.
A pervasive and severe psychotic condition characterized by distortions in thinking and bizarre behaviors.
Section 504 of the Rehabilitation Act of 1973
A federal law that covers all agencies and institutions receiving financial assistance that requires that no otherwise qualified handicapped individual shall be excluded from participation in program or activity (e.g., college, university or other post-secondary institution, a public system of higher education).
The ability of individuals to make the choices that allow them to exercise control over their own lives, to achieve the goals to which they aspire and to acquire the skills and resources necessary to participate fully and meaningfully in society.
The component of spoken and written language that focuses on the meaning of phrases, sentences, and more complex and longer expressions.
Social competence
The ability to respond appropriately in social situations and to carry out the functions associated with independent living.
Social maladjustment
An individual's inability to cope with social situations. As a result, an individual may exhibit aggressive behaviors.
Special classes
Educational programs developed for the K-12 school environment where students with special needs are served in a separate class from the general education classroom.
Supported education
Education in integrated settings for people with severe disabilities for whom postsecondary education has not traditionally occurred or for people for whom postsecondary education has been interrupted or intermittent as a result of a severe disability, and who, because of their handicap, need ongoing support services to be successful in the education environment.
A component of language that involves the knowledge and application of the rules governing the use of classes of words - the grammar of language.
The Functional Magnetic Resonance Imaging (also FMRI)
A neuroimaging technique that provides high resolution, noninvasive reports of neural activity detected by a blood oxygen level.
Poisons produced by certain animals, plants, or bacteria. When exposed to or ingested during prenatal development can lead to developmental disabilities within the child.
Visual-spatial difficulties
The inability to identify, organize and interpret sensory data received by the individual through the eye.
Vocational Education
Organized educational programs which are directly related to the preparation of individuals for paid or unpaid employment, or for additional preparation for a career requiring other than a baccalaureate or advanced degree (from Vocational Education Act of 1963).
Williams syndrome
A genetic disorder characterized by mild intellectual disabilities, distinctive facial appearance, problems with calcium balance, and blood vessel disease.