Chapter 4-Lipids Vocabulary

a group of water-insoluble, energy-yielding organic compounds composed of carbon, hydrogen, and oxygen atoms.
a class of lipids composed of a glycerol molecule as its backbone with 3 fatty acids attached.
fatty acids
organic compounds composed of a chain of carbon atoms to which hydrogen atoms are attached. An acid group (COOH) is attached at one end and a methyl group (CH3) at the other end.
a three-carbon atom chain that serves as the backbone of triglycerides.
saturated fatty acids
fatty acids in which all the carbon atoms are bonded to as many hydrogen atoms as they can hold so no double bonds exist between carbon atoms.
unsaturated fatty acids
fatty acids that are not completely saturated with hydrogen atoms, so one or more double bonds form between the carbon atoms.
omega-6 (n-6) fatty acids ("good" fat)
an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost(siutuated at the very end) double bond occurs six carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain.
omega-3 fatty acids (n-3) ("bad" fat")
an unsaturated fatty acid whose endmost(situated at the very end) double bond occurs three carbon atoms from the methyl end of its carbon chain.
Low Density Lipoprotein (LDL)- Cholesterol
the major class of atherogenic lipoproteins that carry cholesterol from the liver to the tissues.
essential fatty acids
fatty acids that cannot be synthesized(produced) in the body and so must be consumed through food.
fish oils
a common term for the long-chain, polyunsaturated omega-3 fatty acids eicosapentaenoic acid (EPA) and docosahexaenoic acid (DHA) found in the fat of fish, primarily in cold-water fish.
a process of adding hydrogen atoms to unsaturated vegetable oils (usually corn, soybean, cottonseed, safflower, or canola oil), which reduces the number of double bonds; the number of saturated and monounsaturated bonds increase as the number of polyunsaturated bonds decreases.
unsaturated fatty acids that have at least one double bond whose hydrogen atoms are on the opposite sides of the double bond; "trans" means across in Latin.
a stabilizing compound that helps to keep both parts of an emulsion (oil and water mixture) from separating.
one of three main classes of lipids that include cholesterol, bile acids, sex hormones, the adrenocortical hormones, and vitamin D.
fat digestion
A minimal amount of chemical digestion of fat occurs in the mouth and stomach through the action of lingual lipase and gastric lipases respectively. As fat enters the duodenum, it stimulates the release of the hormone cholecystokinin, which in turn stimulates the gallbladder to release bile(fluid given off by the liver). Bile prepares fat for digestion by suspending the hydrophobic molecules in the watery intestinal fluid. Most fat digestion occurs in the small intestine. Pancreatic lipase splits off one fatty acid at a time from the triglyceride molecule, working from the outside in until two free fatty acids and a monoglyceride remain. Usually the process stops at this point but sometimes digestion continues and the monoglyceride spits into a free fatty acid and glyceride molecule. The end products of digestion—mostly monoglycerides with free fatty acids and little glycerol—are absorbed into intestinal cells. It is normal for a small amount of fat (4 to 5 g) to escape digestion and be excreted in the feces.
a glyceride molecule with only one fatty acid attached.
a group of compound lipids that is similar to triglycerides in that they contain a glycerol molecule and two fatty acids. In place of the third fatty acid, phospholipids have a phosphate group and a molecule of choline or another nitrogen-containing compound.
fat anabolsim
involving the storage of energy, and the building of membranes ;constructive in metabolism
fat catabolism
the process of lipids or phospholipids being broken down by lipases;destructive in metabolism
fat is found in all food groups except the ______ group
fat deposited in the muscle of meat.
fat particles encircled(to form a circle around/pass around) by bile salt s to facilitate(bring out) their diffusion(spread out) into intestinal cells.
lipoproteins that transport absorbed lipids from intestinal cells through the lymph and eventually into the bloodstream.
unsaturated fatty acids whose hydrogen atoms occur on the same side of the double bond.