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change in a kind of organism over time; process by which modern organisms have descended from ancient organisms


the remains (or an impression) of a plant or animal that existed in a past geological age and that has been excavated from the soil

artificial selection

selection by humans for breeding of useful traits from the natural variation among different organisms


inherited characteristic that increases an organisms chance of survival


the condition of being suitable

natural selection

a natural process resulting in the evolution of organisms best adapted to the environment


dealing with the geographical distribution of animals and plants

homologous structure

structures that have different mature forms in different organisms but develop from the same embryonic tissues

analogous structure

structures that are not the same in form but are used for the same purpose ex: bird wing and fly wing

vestigial structure

parts of an organism that are no longer functioning and do not affect survival

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