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Government 2301 Test 3 Young

The process by which individuals acquire their opinions is called

political socialization.

Studies indicate that children whose parents participate in civic life are ________ to do so themselves.

more likely

Which factors have social scientists argued exert the strongest influence on political socialization?

family and school

What influence do first-generation political activists identify as significant in motivating them to become involved in civic activity?

school, the media, friends, and public policies

When are children in the United States first exposed to socialization by being encouraged to believe in democracy and express patriotism?


Research appears to indicate that ________ tend to particularly favor the Republican Party.

white Protestants

No matter how religious they are, ________ are likely to identify themselves as Democrats.

African Americans

Which of the following political leaders plays a prominent role in shaping Americans' views?


Sixty percent of all ________ are registered Democrats.

Asian Americans

Which youth cohort, out of the following groups, is LEAST likely to have engaged in political protests?


Public polls and voting behavior indicate that men and women have ________ views on many issues.

very different

On the issue of _______, men's and women's opinions differ very little.


Men are about ________ more likely to favor the death penalty than women.

10 percent

Which of these events is a strong example of the generational effect on the oldest Americans?

Great Depression

Which regions tend to favor the Democrats?

the Northeast, the West Coast, and most major cities

Which regions tend to favor the Republicans?

the South, the West, and the Midwest

Which region has the largest Catholic and Jewish populations compared to other regions in the United States?

the Northeast

Which region has the largest population of those without a religious affiliation, compared to other regions in the United States?

the West

Which of the following are examples of manifestations of popular opinion?

public demonstrations; writing letters to the editor in local newspapers; and writing to congressmen and other federal officials

Who founded the American Institute of Public Opinion in 1935?

George Gallup

Because it is impossible to measure everyone's opinions, pollsters frequently rely on

random sampling.

According to one study, what percentage of young adults aged 18-29 live in cellular-only households?

33 percent

For the purposes of stratified sampling, how many sampling regions are there in the United States?


Most polling organizations rarely poll more than ________ respondents.


A poll that measures changes in public opinion over time is known as a

tracking poll.

What phrase did Alexis de Tocqueville coin to describe Americans in his 1835 work Democracy in America?

"a nation of joiners"

What percentage of Americans belong to voluntary groups or associations?

80 percent

Today, where are people more likely to socialize with their friends than in previous generations?

at restaurants

In what way do interest groups succeed in channeling civic participation?

All these answers are correct.

According to elite theorists, a ruling class of wealthy, educated individuals wields most of the power in which of these institutions?

top universities, major corporations, media outlets, and the military

Most Americans have a ________ impression of interest groups.

generally negative

Which social group is likely to be overrepresented in interest groups?

All these groups are likely to be overrepresented in interest groups.

Which of the following occupations are represented by labor unions?

teachers and trades people

Many people over 50 join the AARP (American Association of Retired Persons) as a result of which incentive?

economic incentive

Which of these interest groups has over 35 million members?


Separate entities formed by interest groups whose specific goal is to raise and spend money to influence election outcomes are known as

political action committees.

In elections, PAC funding shapes electoral outcomes by tending to favor which type of candidate?


Today, what percentage of U.S. workers belong to unions?

12 percent

Which of these groups represents agricultural interests?

AFBF (American Farm Bureau Federation)

Who created the concept of rational choice theory?

Mancur Olson

Which religious interests organization was founded by Jerry Falwell in the 1970s?

the Moral Majority

Since 2000, the Christian Coalition has concentrated on which of these activities?

voter registration and get out the vote campaigns

As a result of the efforts of AIPAC (American Israel Public Affairs Committee), U.S. aid to Israel in 2007 totaled

$2.5 billion.

Which American President coined the term lobbyist?

Ulysses S. Grant

Which measure(s) do lobbyists employ to gain access to policymakers?

"buttonholing" in the Capitol

The interaction of mutual interests involving interest groups, government officials, and members of Congress is known as the

iron triangle.

What year included the Supreme Court decision of Citizens United v. Federal Election Commission, which drastically altered the political landscape by allowing corporate and union election financing?


Which group is often used by interest groups to testify before Congress as a means of raising public awareness?


Which organizations are now able to bypass PACs and use financial resources to directly purchase federal campaign advertisements?

labor unions and corporations

One recent study indicated that college students are ________ to join a politically-motivated interest group than their peers who do not attend college.

more than twice as likely

1. Which of the following are direct forms of political participation?

volunteering on a campaign, running for office, and voting

2. Which state does not even require voters to register in order to participate in elections?

North Dakota

3. Who can vote in an open primary election?

anyone, even unregistered voters

4. Who can vote in a closed primary election?

only registered voters of members of that party

5. Which of these groups controls the timing of primary elections?

the states

6. In the United States, most general elections are held in what month?


7. In many states, what percentage of votes must a candidate receive in a general election to avoid a runoff election?

50 percent

8. Which groups typically sponsor initiatives, or initiative petitions?

citizens' and interest groups

9. What type of election allows voters to cut an officeholder's term short?

recall election

10. Due to the popularity of voting by mail, which state has recently abandoned voting in polling places on Election Day?


11. Which of these reasons motivate individuals to run for office?

civic responsibility, party allegiance, personal goals, and desire for greater name recognition

12. What age limit for presidential office is codified by Article I of the Constitution?

at least 35 years old

13. Which factors determine eligibility and qualifications for elected office at the state level?

age, residency, and citizenship

14. Today, most political campaigns are conducted and managed by

paid campaign consultants.

15. Which of these pieces of legislation created the Federal Election Commission, the agency responsible for enforcing federal campaign finance laws?

Federal Election Campaign Act

16. Tax-exempt groups that raise money for political activities are known as ________.


17. Which of these factors is most important in determining voter participation?

education level

18. How many electors are there in the Electoral College?


19. What year were 18-year-olds granted the right to vote in the United States?


20. In the United States, voters with the highest income level have voting rates of

over 85 percent.

21. What percentage of incumbents, or those already holding office, generally win re-election to the House of Representatives and the Senate?

over 90 percent

22. Over the last few years, many political campaigns have grown

increasingly negative.

23. In the United States, presidential campaigns generally last

for over one year.

24. Passage of the National Voter Registration Act—or "Motor Voter" Act—in 1993 has had a ________ effect on voter registration and turnout.


25. What theory states that making the conscious choice not to vote is rational and logical?

rational abstention thesis

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