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Terms in this set (27)

Kohlberg , inspired by Piaget's ideas, described six stages of moral development, grouped into three levels.
These six stages are grouped into three levels of moral decision making. Each level with two stages. Kohlberg's ideas anchored at the middle level, Conventional Morality, with a level occurring before it and a level emerging after it
LEVEL I: PRECONVENTIONAL: STAGE 1: Punishment and obedience orientation. Sticking to rules to avoid punishment
STAGE 2: Naive instrumental hedonism. What is right defined by that which benefits actor.
LEVEL II: CONVENTIONAL: STAGE 3: "Good boy", "Nice girl" morality. Need to do what is "right" as defined by others; the effect of an action on a relationship also seen as important. STAGE 4: Law-and-order orientation. Institutions, law, duty, honor, and guilt motivate behavior.
LEVEL III: POSTCONVENTIONAL: STAGE 5: Morality of social contract. Democratic laws guarantee individual rights; contracts are mutually beneficial. STAGE 6: Universal ethical. Conscience is individual. Laws are socially useful but not absolute.
-Shortly before his death in 1987, Kohlberg proposed a seventh stage of moral reasoning: This type of of reasoning moves beyond considerations of justice
It seems to have much in common with the concepts of "transendence" as considered in Eastern religions
In the seventh stage, person reflects on "Why be moral" - with answer put in a cosmic perspective: that is the person comes to recognize a "...oneness with the universe"....coming to see everything as connected
Children often spend much of their free time in groups, but friendships can only be developed in individual, one-to-one relationships. Popularity is the group's opinion of the child, but friendship is a two-way, or reciprocal relationship
Strongest friendship involve equal commitment and mutual give and take. A friend is one for whom the child feels affection, and from whom the child receives support.
-Children look for friends who are like them: Of the same age,
Of the same gender, of the same ethnic group and with common interests.
-Kids ideas about friendship and the ways they act with friends, change with age, reflecting cognitive and emotional growth: Preschool friends play together, but friendship among school-aged children is deeper and more stable.
-Children cannot have true friends until they achieve the cognitive maturity to consider other people's view and needs as well as their own. School-aged youngsters can distinguish among "best friends", "good friends: and "casual friends" based on the level of intimacy in the relationship and the time spent together
-Kids in middle childhood typically have 3 - 5 "best" friends with whom they spend most of their time, but they only play with one or two of these friends at a time.
-Friendships seem to help kids feel good about themselves, thought its also likely that kids who feel good about themselves have an easier time making friends. Friendships also seem to positively influence cognitive functioning
Friends working together seem to produce better writing assignments. Friends seem to cooperate better than acquaintances. Even unpopular kids make friends, but they have fewer friends and tend to find them among younger children, other unpopular kids, or kids in a different class or school
Onset of early adolescence involves the experience of PUBERTY.Puberty defined as a period of rapid skeletal and sexual maturation that occurs during the early years of adolescence. Some speak of the years just prior to the onset of Puberty as the Prepubescent years (approximately ages 12 - 14 years)
•There seem to be consistent gender differences in the onset and outcomes of puberty:
---In girls puberty occurs, on average, at age 12, signaled by menarche, the onset of the menstrual cycle.The average age of menarche does seem to be culturally specific, with girls from Norway experiencing the onset of menstruation at age 13, with girls in the US beginning at age 12.45 years.
There has been, over the past 150 years or so, a "secular trend" seen in the onset of menarche. In early 1900's in the US, menarche usually seen at around age 14.2 years
So, the onset of menstruation has come to be experienced, on average, some two years earlier over that time period (translates into some 4 months per decade). Reasons for this unclear, but often this lowering of the age of puberty in girls seen as reflecting improved nutrition and health care.
---In boys, the onset of puberty occurs approximately two years later than in girls.
Puberty a period of rapid skeletal and sexual growth and development:
•The dramatic physical changes experienced in puberty are supported by rapid and extreme hormonal changes that occur with the young adolescent's body. There is evidence that such hormonal changes also influence psychological development of adolescents
◦Boys with higher levels of testosterone (associated with changes in height, the development of genitals, the change in voice in boys) have been found to see themselves as more socially competent. (Halpern,, 19912). While girls with higher levels of estradiol (associated with breast, uterine, and skeletal development) expressed more anger and aggression (Inoff-Germain, et. al, 1988)
◦Social experiences also seem to play an important role in the changes experienced by boys and girls
Another factor to consider, especially in terms of the physiological changes experienced during early adolescence, concerns the individual rate at which sexual maturity is experienced
--Early Maturation in adolescence
For boys: Such early maturing boys are likely to be seen as advanced athletically. Often chosen for leadership positions
They tend to be popular with girls due to their social interests, the interpersonal skills, and their level of sophistication. They often exhibit high levels of self-confidence and a favorable self concept, reflecting favorable treatment by their peers.
For girls: Often aggressive with boys and. May suffer from opinions as to be "fast" or "stupid," due to their advanced maturation and sophisticated social interests.They may be envied by other girls for their grown up looks and clothing
Often aggressive with boys due to their earlier interest in dating. Social expectations may be too high because of their mature appearance
--Late Maturation in adolescents:
Males: Rarely chosen for leadership roles. Many times embarrassed, self-conscious, and shy because of lags in the maturation of secondary sex characteristics. Often rejected by girls in social activities due to a lack of sophistication. Often low in self confidence and self concept due to rejection received from peers
Females: Popular with peers, and often chosen as a leader
Resentful of being treated as a child/ Often have a reputation for being "nice" based on a lack of social aggressiveness. More in step with boys of their own age and thus not subject to excessive criticism and ridicule
Often plagued by doubts about their "normalcy"
Adolescents follow certain paths to identity:
•Much of the upheaval characteristic of early adolescence has cleared during middle adolescence, but issues, especially issues concerning identity continue. Much of an adolescent's identity is developed by late adolescence, but the often have to make certain decisions as to how they will work and live their lives. John Marcia and others have described several regularities in the different paths that adolescents are likely to follow. Marcia and others group these paths into four types, with these statuses shown the related material on John Marcia.
--Erikson and others suggest that Identity Achievement and Identity moratorium are the most psychologically healthy routes for mature self-definition, while diffusion and foreclosure are mal-adaptive
•Young people who are in Identity Achievement or are actively exploring (Identity Moratorium) have a higher sense of self-esteem, are more likely to engage in abstract and critical thinking, and report greater similarity between their ideal and real selves
•Young people who are Identity Achieved are less self-conscious and self-absorbed and are more secure about revealing their true selves to other
-Young people stuck in Identity Diffusion and in Identity Foreclosure have adjustment difficulties:
•Foreclosed individuals tend to be dogmatic, inflexible, and intolerant
•Long-term Diffused individuals are the least mature in terms of identity development
1.They typically entrust themselves to luck or fate
2.They often have a "I don't care" attitude
3.Tend to go along passively with the crowd.