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final exam review
Terms in this set (85)
First permanent English settlement in America. It was founded in 1607 for the purpose of finding gold. Gold was never found, however. Jamestown became successful because of their cash crop, tobacco.
John Smith was the original ruler of Jamestown colony and produced a peace treaty with the Powhattan Indians
House of Burgess
The first representative governments in America. To make descions for common goods of the colonist
House of Lords
One of the house of parliament and the house of Burgess is modeled afterwards and the upper house of the parliament
House of Commons
England's lower house in Parliament. Representatives are elected by the people.
It was supposed to land in Virginia and build the success of the Jamestown Colony and they were granted a charter but they were revoked in 1608 due to their lack of success.
It stated that the colony would remain loyal to the king and would be ruled by the majority.
They fled religious prosecution but did the same with people who disagreed with them.
A joint-stock company chartered in 1606 and was responsible for founding the first permanent English settlement in America; Jamestown, Virginia in 1607.
He published letters criticizing the rule of the royal government he was charged with Sedition.
Defense attorney in the Zenger case who made the first step toward freedom of the press.
All paper products required the royal stamp. Led to protest groups like Sons of Liberty. Colonist refuse to follow the Stamp Act
Sons of Liberty
A radical political organization formed by Samuel Adams after the passage of the Stamp Act to protest various British acts; organization used both peaceful and violent means of protest.
English Bill of Rights
English Bill of Rights was a British Law, passed by the Parliament of Great Britain in 1689 that declared the rights and liberties of the people
The town shed act was introduced in 1767 and placed import duties on all items shipped into the colonies. repealed in 1770 continue being tax tea.
Boston Tea Party
John Adams lead the Sons of Liberty, dressed as Indians went to a Boston Tea Ship and dumped 342 tea chest on the Boston Harbor
Coercive Act 1. Boston Port Bill Boston -Harbor would be closed until the cost of the tea lost was paid back to the East India Co.
2. Administration of Justice Act- British soldiers and officials would be put on trial in England for crimes committed in the colonies
3. Massachusetts government act- eliminated all town meeting and the power of officials elected by the colonist
4. Quartering Act-assigned soldiers to live in the homes of the colonist
5.the right o remain silent ,double jeopardy,right to due process.
6.The right to a speedy trial by right, representation by an attorney for an accused person.
First Contential Congress
Took place in Philadelphia following the coercive acts. The people of congress wanted to protest by ending England's trade.
Second Continetal Congress
Took place following the battles of Lexington & Concord
-Delegates decided to print their own money
-Form a continental army
-appoint George Washington as commander and chief
also made Declaration of Independence drafted
Battles of Lexington and Concord
The battles of Lexington and Concord initiated the Revolutionary War between the American colonists and the British. British governor Thomas Gage sent troops to Concord to stop the colonists who were loading arms. The next day, on April 19, 1775, the first shots were fired in Lexington, starting the war. The battles resulted in a British retreat to Boston
3rd President of the United States , He was a delegate from Virginia at the Second Continental Congress and wrote the Declaration of Independence. He later served as the third President of the United States.
Declaration of Independence
-Thomas Jefferson- main writer
The controversy of the document resolve around equal
The king was responsible for slavery
Social Contract Theory
an agreement between the people and the government
State of Nature
When you take away government. ex. everyone holds a right to everything
Locke believed the purpose of government is to end the state of nature and governments should protect peoples natural rights
believed that government must be separated into branches
1694-1778) French philosopher. He believed that freedom of speech was the best weapon against bad government. He also spoke out against the corruption of the French government, and the intolerance of the Catholic Church.
Jean Jaques Rousseau
18th century French philosopher who was one of the leading figures of the Enlightenment. He held that in the state of nature, people are good
Articles of Confederation
Drafted during the second continental congress. The central government was given the power to 1. conduct foreign affairs 2. maintain the military & declare war 3. Coin money. Congress was able to write laws but not enforce them.
Daniel Shay led an angry mob of protesters into Springfield Massachusetts b/c of taxation, high war debt. and poor farming conditions. This showed the weakness of the articles of confederation and showed the central government was weak.
Bill of Rights
A formal statement of the fundamental rights of the people of the United States, incorporated in the Constitution as Amendments 1-10, and in all state constitutions.
"Father of the Constitution". His proposals for an effective government became the Virginia Plan, which was the basis for the Constitution. He was responsible for drafting most of the language of the Constitution.
Seperation of Church and State
The division between religion and government
The concept that religion and government should remain separate. The principle is the basis for the establishment clause of the First Amendment.
putting someone on trial for a crime of which he or she was previously acquitted.
People have the right to fair and unreasonable laws. Officials have to follow rules when enforcing laws and need to treat all people in the same way.
the situation occurring when an individual accused of a crime is compelled to be a witness against himself or herself in court. The Fifth Amendment forbids self-incrimination.
Power of a government to take private property for public use; the U.S. Constitution gives national and state governments this power and requires them to provide just compensation for property so taken.
A court order allowing law enforcement officers to search a suspect's home or business and take specific items as evidence
was an Anti-federalist because he believed the Constitution needed a section guaranteeing individual rights.
Power is divided between the state and federal goverments.
Powers that are given to congress
Powers given to neither to congress nor denied to the states.
Powers that are shared by federal and state goverment
restriction on access to ideas and information
Rights of the accused
The protections that the Constitution guarantees to citizens who are accused of crimes.
the rights and privileges of a person accused of a crime, guaranteeing him a fair trial.
Rights possessed by persons who are arrested by the police. (Remain silent, Attorney, etc.)
Petition A formal message where people can sign and submit to the authority's
Political Party led by Hamilton - pro-British; supported by the wealthy; pro-merchants and trade; Favored the National Bank (BUS); loose interpretation
A person who apposed the ratification of the U.S constitution and wanted a bill of rights to be ended
They opposed the ratification of the Constitution because it gave more power to the federal government and less to the states, and because it did not ensure individual rights. After the ratification of the Constitution, the Antifederalists regrouped as the Democratic-Republican (or simply Republican) party
James Madison was the major organizer of the constitutional convention. 1st attempt to bring the states together. This was to discuss the weaknesses of the central government.
Convention that met in Philadelphia in 1787 that drafted the Constitution of the United States.
How did Ben Franklin and George Washington contribute to the Constitutional Convention?
Rules of the constitutional convention
1. Nothing discussed in the convention would be discussed outside of the meeting.
2.Each delegate had to be heard
3. All states regardless of their size only got one vote
Virginia delegate James Madison's plan of government, in which states got a number of representatives in Congress based on their population
New Jersey Plan
A constitutional proposal that would have given each state one vote in a new congress
1787; This compromise was between the large and small states of the colonies. The Great Compromise resolved that there would be representation by population in the House of Representatives, and equal representation would exist in the Senate. Each state, regardless of size, would have 2 senators.
Two house legislature
The Three-Fifths Compromise was a compromise reached between delegates from southern states and those from northern states during the 1787 United States Constitutional Convention.
Know how the amendment is added to the consitution
The Congress, whenever two thirds of both houses shall deem it necessary, shall propose amendments to this Constitution, or, on the application of the legislatures of two thirds of the several states, shall call a convention for proposing amendments.
Acts passed in 1660 passed by British parliament to increase colonial dependence on Great Britain for trade; limited goods that were exported to colonies; caused great resentment in American colonies.
Accuse the president of wrong doing
Speaker of the House
An office mandated by the Constitution. The Speaker is chosen in practice by the majority party, has both formal and informal powers, and is second in line to succeed to the presidency should that office become vacant.
An executive officer ranking immediately below a president. If the president is unable to serve, he/she takes his/her place. President of Senate & casts tie-breaker vote in Senate.
A government in which citizens elect representatives to make laws.
the representatives in Virginia's legislature
A written agreement to make and obey laws
A group of people chosen to make laws
A document giving permission to create a goverment
Citizens vote directly on policy's of laws
A abuse of power
Seperation of Power
Dividing gov. powers and branches
False and malicious use of printed words
(n.) a written statement that unfairly or falsely harms the reputation of the person about whom it is made; (v.) to write or publish such a statement
False and malicious use of spoken words
Rights that people are born with and that no government can take away
1st President of the United States; commander-in-chief of the Continental Army during the American Revolution (1732-1799)
was the King of England who disbanded the colonial legislatures, taxed the colonies, and refused the Olive Branch Petition leading to the final break with the colonies.
organization that tries to influence gov. policy by promoting its ideas and backing candidates for office
A person who is employed by and acts for an organized interest group or corporation to try to influence policy decisions and positions in the executive and legislative branches.
The tinker kids wore peace signed armband for a silent protest of the Vietnam war.
Belief that a rulers authority comes directly from god.
French and Indian Wars
Was a war fought by French and English on American soil over control of the Ohio River Valley-- English defeated French in 1763. Historical Significance: established England as number one world power and began to gradually change attitudes of the colonists toward England for the worse.
taking a possession through a legal process.
command against or to keep from doing something.
a formal document charging a person with some offense.
an approval that a constitution needs before going into effect.
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