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Prokaryotic cells and viruses
Terms in this set (35)
Lipids and proteins
In prokaryotic cells what is the membrane made up of?
A long, hair like structure that rotates to make the prokaryotic cell move
What is a flagellum?
In prokaryotes they are smaller
What is different about ribosomes in prokaryotic cells?
Dead ! It's not alive !
Is a virus a dead or alive?
Ribosomes, plasma membrane, cytoplasm, nucleotide, cell wall
What is in every prokaryote?
The cells in organisms which viruses invade and reproduce inside of
What are host cells?
Viruses are ACELLULAR
What is the name for viruses meaning they aren't living?
Not all prokaryotes have a flagellum, and some have more than one
How many flagella do prokaryotic cells have?
What size are viruses approximately?
They contain a core of genetic material which is either RNA or DNA. They have a protein coat around the core called the capsid. Attachment proteins stick out from the edge of the capsid. These let the virus cling on to a suitable host cell
What are the parts of a virus?
Plasmids, pilus, mesosomes, nucleoid and a capsule
What unusual things do prokaryotes have that eukaryotes don't?
About 0.1 micrometers across
How big is the virus HIV?
No plasma membrane, no cytoplasm and no ribosomes
What do viruses not have?
A prokaryotic cell doesn't have a nucleus so the DNA floats freely in the cytoplasm. It's circular DNA, present as one long coiled up strand. The DNA in prokaryotes is not attached to any histone proteins
What is the structure of the DNA in prokaryotes?
Each daughter cell has one copy of the circular DNA, but can have a variable number of copies of the plasmid(s)
How many plasmids and DNA loops do the new daughter cells have?
Prokaryotic cell replication of its genetic material before physically splitting into two daughter cells
What is binary fission?
A virus injects its Nucleic acid into the host cell. The infected host cell then replicates the virus using its own machinery like enzymes, ribosomes etc as it has been hijacked. The host lyses and the viral particles are released which leads to the infection of other cells
How does a virus infect a host cell?
By what process do prokaryotes replicate?
Because they're not alive
Why do viruses not undergo cell division?
The circular DNA and plasmids replicate. The main loop of DNA is only replicated once but plasmids can replicate loads of times. The cell gets bigger and the DNA loops move to opposite poles of the cell. The cytoplasm begins to divide and a new cell wall begins to form. The cytoplasm divides and two daughter cells are produced
How does binary fission happen?
Approximately 2 micrometers -same as a mitochondrion
What is the size of a prokaryote?
A bit sticking out of the plasma membrane in prokaryotes towards the extracellular space
What is a pilus?
Viruses are even smaller than bacteria
How big are viruses? Compare them to prokaryotes.
Some plasmids contain genes like things for antibiotic resistance and this can be passed between prokaryotes, which can create a resistant strain
What do some plasmids contain and why can this be a disadvantage?
Do prokaryotes contain food reserves such as glycogen and lipids?
A bit of the plasma membrane sticking into the cytoplasm but this could be an artefact caused by preparing to study the prokaryote
What is a mesosome?
It is a Nucleic acid surrounded by protein - not even alive.
What is the structure of a virus?
It is made of a polymer called more in which is a glycoprotein (a protein with a carbohydrate attached)
What is the structure of the cell wall in prokaryotes?
Do prokaryotes have ribosomes?
Plasmids are not always present in prokaryotes but some prokaryotic cells can have several
How many plasmids do prokaryotic cells have?
Because eukaryotes and prokaryotes created symbiotic relationships
Why are some prokaryotes able to live in eukaryotes?
Different viruses have different attachment proteins and therefore require different receptor proteins on host cells to be able to bind to them. As a result, some viruses can only infect one type of cell with the complementary shaped receptor proteins, while others can infect lots of different cells
How come some viruses can infect only one type of cell and others can infect loads of different cell Service?
Viruses use their attachment proteins to bind to complementary receptor proteins on the surface of host cells
How do viruses attach themselves to host cells?
Plasmids are small loops of DNA that aren't part of the main circular DNA molecule
What are plasmids?
Nooooo only ribosomes
Do prokaryotic cells have membrane bound organelles?
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