1 Essentials of Global Health
Terms in this set (40)
Describe the evolution of the health focuses of the world prior to global health
tropical medicine --> public health --> international health --> global health
What is tropical health?
-Emerged during the 19th century as a result of colonialism when European explorers experienced diseases they had never seen before in their home countries. As a result, they tasked their scientific community to study those diseases
-A branch of medicine that deals with the diagnosis and treatment of diseases often found in tropical regions of the world
-Focuses on infectious and parasitic diseases including yellow fever, dysentery, malaria etc.
What is public health?
-Emerged in the mid 19th century in Great Britain as a result of the living, health, and unsanitary conditions created by the Industrial Revolution
-Focuses on health issues that affect the population of
a particular country/community
-Seeks to prevent disease, prolong life, and promote health through organized social efforts
What is international health?
-Emerged in the late 19th and early 20th century as a result of cooperation between developing countries and their development partners in the developed world (Elmendorf, 2010)
-Focuses primarily on health issues that affect people in low- and middle-income countries
-Seeks to help poor countries improve upon the health of their citizens
-Term is used to describe health work abroad with a focus on countries other than one's own
What is global health?
More recent in origin. Emerged in the 20th Century due to:
-Increased global interconnectedness, interdependence, and interaction
-the realization that diseases transcend national boundaries
-the recognition that the prevention and control of diseases that plague the world these days requires global effort
-health inequalities between and within nations...
Define global health
Health problems, issues, and concerns that transcend national boundaries, may be influenced by circumstances or experiences in other countries, and are best addressed by cooperative actions and solutions
The health of populations in a global context which transcends the perspectives and concerns of individual nations
Worldwide improvement of health, reduction of disparities, and protection against global threats that disregard national borders
A field of practice, research and education focused on health and the social, economic, political and cultural forces that shape it across the world. The discipline has an historical association with the distinct needs of developing countries but it is also concerned with health-related issues that transcend national boundaries and the differential impacts of globalization. It is a cross-disciplinary field, blending
perspectives from the natural and social sciences to understand the social relationships, biological processes and technologies that contribute to the improvement of health worldwide
Global health issues include...?
Health problems affecting/concerning many countries such as:
Injury and Accidents
Global collaborative actions to deal with global health problems such as:
What is Global health inequality?
Avoidable inequalities in health status between and within different populations, as a result of the social and economic conditions in which people are born, grow, live, work, and age. The inequities arise
from inequalities within and between societies.
What are Global health risk factors?
Conditions or behavior that increase the possibility of disease or injury worldwide. Examples include tobacco use and lack of access to improved sanitation and clean water
What is the Global burden of disease?
The measure of the amount of disease, disability, and death in the world
What are the MDGs?
A set of 8 goals identified by the United Nations
Millennium Project in 2000 to eliminate poverty and significantly improve health and environmental outcomes for disadvantaged populations around the globe by the year 2015
What is globalization?
The process of increasing economic, political, and social interdependence, and integration as capital, goods, persons, concepts, ideas, and values cross state boundaries
What are global health partnerships?
Collaborative relationships among governments, donors, NGOs, and a variety of private-sector organizations dedicated to the pursuit of a shared health goal
What is disease control?
Reduction of disease incidence, prevalence, morbidity and mortality to a locally acceptable level due to deliberate efforts. (Continued intervention measures required to maintain reductions)
o Example: malaria
What is elimination of disease?
Reduction to zero of the spread of a specified disease in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts. (Continued intervention measures required to maintain reductions)
o Example: Onchocerciasis or river blindness
What is elimination of infections?
Reduction to zero of the incidence of infection caused by a specific agent in a defined geographical area as a result of deliberate efforts. (Continued intervention measures required to maintain reductions)
o Example: measles, poliomyelitis
What is eradication?
Permanent reduction to zero of the worldwide incidence of infection caused by a specific agent as a result of deliberate efforts. (Continued intervention measures no longer needed)
o Example: smallpox
What global disease has already been eradicated?
What global eradications are underway?
Guinea worm (declared goal in 1986 by WHO)
Polio (declared goal in 1986 by WHO)
What regional eliminations are established or underway?
Lymphatic Filariasis (Elephantiasis)
Rubella (German Measles)
Onchocerciasis (River Blindness)
What are the 6 WHO epidemiological regions?
1. African Region
2. Eastern Mediterranean Region
3. European Region
4. Region of the Americas
5. South-East Asian Region
6. Western Pacific Region
What are characteristics of developing countries?
Low average per capita income Low literacy level
Low life expectancy
High population growth rate High mortality rate
Majority of population live in rural areas
Under performing economies Unstable governments Poor infrastructure
Not highly industrialized
What are characteristics of developed countries?
Have a market economy
High average per capita income High level of literacy
High life expectancy
Low population growth rate
Low mortality rate
Majority of population live in cities
High performing economies
Stable democratic governments
What are low- and middle-income countries sometimes referred to as and why?
developing countries; for convenience... not intended to imply that all economies in the group are experiencing similar development
What is the mission of global health?
Achieve health equity among nations and for all people
What is the geographical reach of global health?
Focuses on health issues that transcend national boundaries
What is the level of cooperation for global health?
Depends on multilateral cooperation for the development and implementation of solutions to global health issues
What is the health content for global health?
Focuses on diseases/health issues that affect the whole world; both communicable and non-communicable (e.g. HIV, Malaria, obesity, tobacco control, etc.)
What health conditions does global health focus on?
Global transfer of health risks
What health responses does global health consider?
Considers behavioral, cultural, political, and economic determinants
What is the range of disciplines for global health?
Describe all differences between global health and international health.
GH seeks to achieve health equity among nations and for all people, while IH seeks to help poor people of developing nations
GH focuses on common issues that transcend national boundaries, while IH focuses on health issues of countries other than one's own, especially developing ones... focuses on differences
levels of cooperation:
GH depends on multilateral cooperation, while IH depends on bi-lateral cooperation
GH focuses on dieases/health issues that affect the world, both communicable and noncommunicable, while IH focuses on control of communicable diseases (tropical diseases, water and sanitation, maternal and child health)
range of disciplines:
GH is highly interdisciplinary while IH embraces only a few disciplines
What are the 3 similarities between global health and international health?
1. embrace prevention
2. concentrate on poor, vulnerable, and underserved populations
3. emphasize health as a common good
Define global interconnectedness
Diseases do not respect national boundaries - Modern transportation allows infectious diseases to spread across the world at an alarming rate. Each year, more than 500 million people cross international borders by aircraft alone thus, importing and exporting diseases like any commodity
What is global health security?
The fact is, no matter where we live, our well-being depends on how health issues are managed around the world
What is urbanization?
Due to globalization, people are migrating to cities in huge numbers, therefore making cities potential breeding grounds for global epidemics
What is globalization of trade?
Free trade and the divergent or absent regulation of trade predispose nations to all forms of health risks. E.g., food imported from around the world could lead to global food safety challenges
What is economic growth and development?
foreign direct investment
What is health equity?
Concerns about the continued and growing health disparities between and within nations
Global health is at the center of what disciplines?
medical and social science disciplines including epidemiology, economics, sociology, political economy etc.