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Alexandra, Empress of Russia

Last Czarina of Russia. Wife of Nicholas II. With Czar at the battlefield she interfiered with politics on advice from Rasputin who claimed to be a holy man. She and her family was executed.

April Theses

issued by Lenin, presented blueprint for revolutionary action based on his own version of Marxist theory

Article 231

a.k.a. War Guilt Clause: declared Germany and Austria responsible for starting the war and ordered Germany to pay reparations

Balkan Crises, 1912 and 1913

The spark that started WW1 after the assassination of Franz Ferdinand, the Archduke of Austria: Austria tries to retaliate against Serbs and Russia comes to their aid as the Slavic "Big Brother". By the early 20th century, Montenegro, Bulgaria, Greece and Serbia had achieved independence from the Ottoman Empire of Turkey. But large parts of their ethnic populations remained under Ottoman rule. In 1912, these countries formed the Balkan League. The First Balkan War broke out when the League attacked Turkey on 8 October 1912 and was ended seven months later by the Treaty of London. After five centuries, Turkey lost virtually all of its possessions in the Balkans.

The Second Balkan War broke out on 16 June 1913. Bulgaria was dissatisfied over the division of the spoils in Macedonia, made in secret by its former allies, Serbia and Greece, and attacked them. The Serbian and Greek armies repulsed the Bulgarian offensive and counter-attacked into Bulgaria, while Romania and Turkey also attacked Bulgaria and gained (or regained) territory. In the resulting Treaty of Bucharest, Bulgaria lost most of the territories it had gained in the First Balkan War.

Big Bertha

heavy long-range siege gun

Black Hand

Serbian terrorist organization dedicated to the creation of a pan-Slavic kingdom

Blank Check

Germany guaranteed support to Austria-Hungary if Russia invade A-H


faction of Russian Social Democrats under leadership of Lenin

Bosnian Crisis, 1908

by 1878 Treaty of Berlin, Bosnia still technically part of Ottoman Empire, 1908- Austria annexes Bosnia angering Russia and Serbia, Russia furious, Germany threatens war, Russia vows war next time

Emperor Charles I

ruler of Austro-Hungarian Empire.


The re-established tsarist secret police, which hunted down and executed thousands of real or suspected foes, sowing fear and silencing opposition.

Georges Clemenceau

French premier at Versailles peace conference who insisted on punishing Germany after the war; one of the Big Four.

Constitutional Democrats

a liberal political party in the Russian Empire. Party members were called Kadets, from the abbreviation K-D of the party name Konstantin Kavelin's and Boris Chicherin's writings formed the theoretical basis of the party's platform. Historian Pavel Miliukov was the party's leader throughout its existence. The Kadets were mainly supported by professionals, - university professors and lawyers were particularly prominent within the party - members of the zemstvo (a form of local government), and some industrialists.

Defense of the Realm Act

An act passed during WWI in Great Britain that allowed the government and police to censor the press and arrest dissenters as traitors

Dual Alliance

created by Bismarck; contained Austria-Hungary and Germany when Russia left the alliance preceding the Congress of Berlin


Russian parliament

February Revolution

of 1917 was the first of two revolutions in Russia in 1917. It occurred March 8-12 (February 23-27 Old Style) and its immediate result was the abdication of Tsar Nicholas II, the collapse of Imperial Russia and the end of the Romanov dynasty.

Franz Ferdinand, Archduke

heir to Austrian throne, assassinated by Black Hand in Sarajevo on June 28, 1914

Fourteen Points

developed by Wilson, include: no secret treaties, freedom of seas, free trade, armament reduction, self-determination, League of Nations

Franz Joseph I

Emperor of Austria-Hungary from 1848 to 1916; during his long reign he took small steps to address the democratic and nationalist aspirations of his people


A poorly planned and badly executed Allied campaign to capture the Turkish peninsula of Gallipoli during 1915 in World War I. Intended to open up a sea lane to the Russians through the Black Sea, the attempt failed with more than 50 percent casualties on both sides.

George V of Britain

King of Britain at the time


bleeding disorder (blood won't clot properly); Alexei had this

Paul von Hindenburg

president of the Wiemar republic; he was the head of the parliament government who was pressured to give the position of chancellor of Germany to Hitler

Alexander Kerensky

Headed the Provisional Government in 1917. Refused to redistribute confiscated landholdings to the peasants. Thought fighting the war was a national duty.

Béla Kun

was a Hungarian Communist politician who ruled Hungary as leader of the short-lived Hungarian Soviet Republic in 1919

League of Nations

part of Wilson's 14 Points, adopted at Paris Peace Conference in 1919


founded the Communist Party in Russia and set up the world's first Communist Party dictatorship. He led the October Revolution of 1917, in which the Communists seized power in Russia. He then ruled the country until his death in 1924.

Karl Liebknecht

A radical socialist in Germany that condemned the war. Arrested after his public outbreak, he was arrested but sparked the imagination of many Germans. Strikes over starvation began.

David Lloyd George

He was the British representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Erich von Ludendorff

Guided German military operations, decided to make one final military break-gamble- grand offensive in the west to break the military stalemate. His gamble failed.


British ship carrying many Americans, sunk by German torpedo, Americans outraged, Germans temporarily restricted submarine warfare

Rosa Luxemburg

The Beginning, Founder of KPD, a Polish Jew, former SPD member. Against WWI. Thrown in jail but smuggled out leaflets to be distributed. Believed that if a communist rev. did not shortly follow Weimar, the capitalist values would undermine society

Machine gun

introduced in WWI and fires bullets rapidly

Mandates, League of Nations

Areas of former Ottoman Empire given to France, Britain to "supervise the transition" to independence. A somewhat condescending means of doing it.


Germans had taken over the River and pushed back Britain and France in a series of attacks; Battle near paris that ended Germany's hope of swift victory, the first battle of WWI happened where the French and British stopped the Germans and the Schlieffen Plan. Second battle was turnign point


faction of Russian Social Democrats that wanted the Social Democrats to be a mass electoral socialist party based on a Western model


act of assembling and putting into readiness for war or other emergency: "mobilization of the troops"

Mustard gas

poisonous gas used during trench warfare

Tsar Nicholas II

Last Tsar of Russia and then end of the Romanov line. Was executed along with the rest of his family under the order of Lenin. In WWI ordered a partial mobilization against Austria-Hungary, forcing a chain reaction of mobilization.

October Revolution

The seizure of power by force by the Bolsheviks from the Provisional Government (that had replaced Tsar Nicholas II after the February Revolution) in November of 1917. After the forceful seizure of power, Lenin set himself up as the first head of a Marxist state with aspirations to change the country, making several decrees in his effort use socialist ideas (Confiscation of large estates and businesses & establishment of political monopoly- no rival political parties).

Vittorio Orlando

He was the Italian representative at the Paris Peace Conference in 1919. He pushed for a revenge-based treaty at Versailles, hampering the 14 points.

Paris Peace Conference

27 nations present, Big Three (America, France, Britain), Germany not invited, Russia not present b/c of civil war


capital city of Russia during World War I; formerly (and today) known as St. Petersburg.

Plan 17

French mobilization plan to recapture Alsace-Lorraine; attack Germany, then come back to attack Austria-Hungary

Princip, Gavrilo

Black Hand assassin of Archduke Franz Ferdinand


information that is spread for the purpose of promoting some cause

Provisional Government

Russia's legislative Duma formed it in order to restore order. It was challenged by the Petrograd Soviet of Workers' and Soldiers' Deputies; a temporary government established in 1917 which replaced Nicholas II when he abdicated. The mistake of this government was not getting Russia out of the brutal World War I.


Siberian peasant with influence over Russian throne, assassinated in 1916

Red Army

Bolshevik army

Red Terror

the campaign of mass arrests and executions conducted by the Bolshevik government

House of Romanov

Second and last imperial dynasty of Russia, which ruled the country for five generations from 1613 to 1761. From 1761 to 1917, Russia was ruled by a line of the House of Oldenburg descended from the marriage of a Romanov grand duchess to the Duke of Holstein-Gottorp. This line was officially also called Romanov. Most prominent and famous are the Tsars Alexander I and Alexander II.

Russian Civil War

1918-1920: conflict in which the Red Army successfully defended the newly formed Bolshevik government against various Russian and interventionist anti-Bolshevik armies. Red vs. White Army.


It is the largest city in Bosnia and Herzegovina. Austria-Hungary conquered it, along with Bosnia and Herzegovina; where Franz Ferdinand was assassinated.

Schlieffen Plan

minimal troop deployment against Russia, but focus on rapid invasion of western France by way of Belgium; plan was to defeat French quickly, then redeploy against Russia

Battle of Somme

A 1916 WWI (1914-1918) battle between German and British forces. Ending in a stalemate, the bitter three-month conflict is notable for the high number of casualties- 1.25 million men killed or wounded - and the first use of tanks in warfare.


the government of the Soviet Union

Sussex Pledge

A promise Germany made to America, after Wilson threatened to sever ties, to stop sinking their ships without warning.


developed by British

Tannenberg and Masurian Lakes, Battles of

Russian army moved into eastern Germany but was decisively defeated; established military reputation for Paul von Hindenburg and General Erich Ludendorff; Russians no longer a threat to German territory

Total War

the channeling of a nation's entire resources into a war effort

Treaty of Brest-Litovsk

treaty in which Russia lost substantial territory to the Germans. This ended Russian participation in the war.

Treaty of Saint Germain

1919 after WWI
Allies make treaty to break up Austreo-Hungry empire
limits Austria in size and weakens Austria

Treaty of Versailles

Created by the leaders victorious allies Nations: France, Britain, US, and signed by Germany to help stop WWI. The treaty 1)stripped Germany of all Army, Navy, Airforce. 2) Germany had to rapair war damages(33 billion) 3) Germany had to acknowledge guilt for causing WWI 4) Germany could not manefacture any weapons.

Trench Warfare

involved trenches, barbed wire, no-man's land, mustard gas; kept both sides from gaining any ground

Triple Alliance

Germany, Austria-Hungary, and Italy

Triple Entente

France, Britain and Russia

Trotsky, Leon

a revolutionary and the chairman of Petrograd soviet


German submarine

Siege of Verdun

lasts from February to early November 1916. Over 700,000 total deaths. French recapture the area forts lost in February.

Western Front

A line of trenches and fortifications in World War I that stretched without a break from Switzerland to the North Sea. Scene of most of the fighting between Germany, on the one hand, and France and Britain, on the other.

White Army

anti-Bolshevik army

Kaiser Wilhelm II

was the Kaiser of Germany at the time of the First World War reigning from 1888-1918. He pushed for a more aggressive foreign policy by means of colonies and a strong navy to compete with Britain. His actions added to the growing tensions in pre-1914 Europe.

Wilson, Woodrow

American president, 14 Points

Windsor, House of

formerly House of Saxe-Coburg and Gotha

Women's Bureau of the Communist Party (Zhenotdel)

sent men and women to all parts of the Russian Empire to explain the new social order; helped with divorce and women's rights, many were murdered by angry males

Zeppelin attack

Germans used these to bomb London and eastern England

Zimmerman Telegram

This telegram, written by German Foreign Secretary Arthur Zimmermann, is a coded message sent to Mexico, proposing a military alliance against the United States. The obvious threats to the United States contained in the telegram inflamed American public opinion against Germany and helped convince Congress to declare war against Germany in 1917.

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