1. What event led to a general disillusionment with the theory of cultural relativism?
The development of social Darwinism.
2. According to anthropologist Ruth Benedict, which of the following do(es) not exist?
Universal moral principles.
3. What would a cultural relativist most likely think of the morality of cross-dressing (men dressing in women's clothing)?
It is morally unacceptable because most people oppose it as a perversion.
4. Sociological relativism states that:
Moral norms vary from culture to culture.
5. Which of the following sources of information would probably be most important to a college student who is a cultural relativist in deciding whether to ban hate speech from college?
The First Amendment of the U.S. Constitution.
6. Which of the following beings, if any, would cultural relativist in the United States include in their moral community?
7. "According to Cultural Relativism people can never be mistaken about what is morally right or wrong, because there is no objective or universal moral standards or truths; instead there are only opinions." The previous statement is:
8. During their exploration of Mars, American scientists discover what they lable a "stone age" society of humans living in caves just under the surface. The people, who are peace loving and welcoming toward the visitors from Earth, have no written language or organized religion; nor they have weapons or a concept of war. Which of the following assesments would a social Darwinist most likely make regarding the morality of this society?
They are clearly morally inferior to our culture because their culure is primitive and lacks both technology and a belief in God.
9. Which of the following is most likely to follow as a result of adopting cultural relativism?
Suspicion and distrust of the norms and values of different cultures.
10. Identify the person who said the following: "We recognize that morality differs in every society, and is a convenient term for socially approved habits."
11. Who is St. Thomas Aquinas referring to in his "Summa Theologica" when he uses the term "the philosopher"?
12. Which comes first, according to Kai Neilsen?
A concept of morality before worship of God.
13. According to divine command theorists:
It is morally acceptable to kill a child, if God commands you to do so.
14. Which of the following organizations adopted natural law ethics in their Nuremberg Charter?
The United Nations.
15. Under natural law theory, something is morally right if:
It is consistent with reason.
16. What law did Susan B. Anthony, in 1872, protest was immoral?
The law prohibiting women from voting.
17. According to Bellah, the morality supported by mainstream religion in the United States is primarily based on:
18. According to Henry David Thoreau, a law may be unjust if it:
Is enacted without the consent of the people.
19. What is the relationship between human law and natural law according to natural law ethicists.
Natural law is higher than human law.
20. What does Aquinas mean when he says that natural law is teleological?
Natural law is directed toward a particular vision of the natural order.
21. According to studies of psychopaths and brain-damaged people like Phineas P. Gage, which part of the brain plays a key role in moral reasoning?
The frontal lobes.
22. "Women's moral judgment, according to Gilligan, is characterized by a concern for themselves and others, accepting and maintaining responsibility within relationships, attachment, and self-sacrifice." The previous statement is:
23. According to Carol Gilligan, most women make moral decisions based on:
Care and relationships.
24. "According to Kohlberg, humans, with exception of psychopaths and other severely impaired people, have an inherent potential for growth from the lower (earlier) to higher stages of moral development." The previous statement is:
25. According to psychologist Lawrence Kohlberg:
People at the postconventional stage of moral development base their moral decisions on universal moral principles.
26. Which of the following two moral sentiments appear early in childhood?
Indignation and empathy.
27. Which of the following factors would a cultural relativist argue is most important in the formation of our consciences?
28. Which of the following questions would you be most likely to hear from someone, in both Kohlberg's and Gilligan's preconventional stage of moral reasoning, when they are confronted with a moral issue?
"What's in it for me?"
29. Psychoanalyst Sigmund Freud identified the conscience with the:
30. Which of the following people would be most likely to excuse a woman's abusive behavior toward her children because of her past history of abuse as a child?
31. Which of the following theories maintains that we always act out of self-interest?
32. In the moral philosophies of John Locke and Thomas Hobbes, a "state of nature" is
The condition in which people lived before entering into a social contract.
33. You are hiring an assistant manager for your company. You've limited the pool of applicants to four equally qualified people. Which of the following social positions is morally obligatory or acceptable if we accept the ethical egoists' definition of morality?
Nepotism: hire your daughter for the job because she's the one you created the job for in the first place.
34. According to Hobbes, which passion inclines men to peace?
Fear of death.
35. Which economic system did Ayn Rand claim was the best morally?
36. Glaucon's story of Gyges's ring is used to support which of the following conclusions?
People behave morally only because they lack the power 2 get away with being immoral
37. According to Hobbes without society we would all live in a "state of nature" in which life would be "solitary, poor, nasty, brutish, and short."
38. Ayn Rand's ethical theory admonishes us to be independent, to have integrity, to be honest and just.
39. For ethical egoism, good will is a rational inclination that guides us towards the moral duty. It is like some sort of innate moral sense.
40. What, according to Ayn rand, is necessary for our survival as humans?