38 terms

CS 110 Chapter 6

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Transactional Information
Encompasses all of the information contained within a single business process or unit of work, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of daily operational tasks
Analytical information
Encompasses all organizational information, and its primary purpose is to support the performing of managerial analysis tasks
Real-time information
Immediate, up-to-date information
Real-time system
Provides real-time information in response to requests
Database
Maintains information about various types of objects (inventory), events (transactions), people (employees), and places (warehouses)
Database management systems (DBMS)
Allows users to create, read, update, and delete data in relational database
Entity
A person, place, thing, transaction, or event about which information is stored
Attribute
The Data elements associated with an entity
Record
A collection of related data elements
Primary Key
A field (or group of fields) that uniquely identities a given entity in a table
Foreign Key
A primary key of one table that appears an attribute in another table and acts to provide a logical relationship among the two tables
Physical View
Deals with the physical storage of information on a storage device
Logical view
Focuses on how individual users logically access information to meet their own particular business needs
Scalability
Refers to how well a system can adapt to increased demands
Performance
Measures how quickly a system performs a certain process or transaction
Data Redundancy
The duplication of data or storing the same information in multiple places
information integrity
Measures the quality of information
Integrity constraint
rules that help ensure the quality of information
Password
Provides authentication of the user
Access level
Determines who has access to the different types of information
Access Control
Determines types of user access, such as read-only access
Data-driven websites
An interactive website kept constantly updated and relevant to the needs of its customers using a database
Data warehouse
A logical collection of information- gathered from many different operational databases- that supports business analysis activities and decision-making tasks
Extraction, transformation, and loading (ETL)
A process that extracts information from internal and external databases, transforms the information using a combo set of enterprise definitions, and loads the information into a data warehouse
Data mart
Contains a subset of data warehouse information
Multidimensional Analysis
Databases containing information in a series of two-dimensional tables
Information Cleansing or scrubbing
A process that weeds out and fixes or discards inconsistent, incorrect, or incomplete information
Data Mining
The process of analyzing data to extract information not offered by the raw data alone
Data-mining tools
use a variety of techniques to find patterns and relationships in large volumes of information
Structured data
Data already in a database or a spreadsheet
Unstructured data
Does not exist in a fixed location and can include text documents, PDFs, voice messages, emails
Text mining
Analyzes unstructured data to find trends and patterns in words and sentences
Web mining
Analyzes unstructured data associated with websites to identify consumer behavior and website navigation
Cluster analysis
A technique used to divide an information set into mutually exclusive groups such that the member of each group are as close together as possible to one another and the different groups are as far apart as possible
Associating detection
Reveals the relationship between variables along with the nature and frequency of the relationships
Statistical analysis
Performs such functions as information correlations, distributions, calculations, and variance analysis
Forecast
Predictions made on the basis of time-weries information
Time-series information
Time-stamped information collected at a particular frequency
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