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BM CHAPTER 3
Terms in this set (12)
1. What are two other names for respondent conditioning?
2. What are respondent behaviors, give three examples?
Respondent Behaviors are behavior elicited by prior stimuli and are not affected by their consequences. Examples include salivation when smelling dinner cooking, feeling frightened when watching a scary movie, blushing when told that your fly is undone, and becoming sexually aroused while watching an x-rated movie.
4. State the principle of respondent conditioning. Clearly diagram an example of respondent conditioning that is not in the text?
The principle of respondent conditioning states that if a neutral stimulus (NS) is followed closely by an unconditioned stimulus (US) that elicits an unconditioned response (UR), then the previous NS will also tend to elicit the response (UR) in the future. For example
6. Define and give an example of the following: unconditioned stimulus, unconditioned response, conditioned stimulus, and conditioned response.
Unconditioned Stimulus: A stimulus that elicits a response without prior learning or conditioning. Example: (UR) FOOD → (US) SALVATION (more example TABLE 3.1 pg 22)
Unconditioned Response: a response elicited by an unconditioned stimulus. Example: Salivating by smelling or seeing food. (More example TBL 3.1 pg 22)
Conditioned Stimulus: a stimulus that elicits a response because that stimulus has been paired with another stimulus that elicits a response. Example: The opening motif of Beethoven's fifth symphony.
Conditioned Response: a response elicited by a conditioned stimulus. Example: Salivating to the opening motif of Beethoven fifth symphony because it has been paired with the US of food.
7. Briefly in a sentence each describe five variables that influence the development of a conditioned reflex.
First, the greater the number of pairing of a CS with a US, the greater is the ability of the CS to elicit the CR, until a maximum strength of the CR has been reached.
Second, stronger conditioning occur if the CS precedes the US by about half a second, rather than a longer time r rather than following the US.
Third, a CS acquires greater ability to elicit a CR if the CS is always paired with the US than if it is only occasionally paired with the US.
Fourth, when several neutral stimuli precede a US, the stimulus that is most consistently associated with the US is the one most likely to become a strong CS.
Fifth, respondent conditioning will develop more quickly and strongly when the CS or US or both are intense rather than weak.
8. Diagram an example of higher order conditioning?
Higher order conditioning is the procedure in which a neutral stimulus becomes a conditioned stimulus by being paired with another conditioned stimulus, instead of with an unconditioned stimulus. In the example from questions (6) if you were to flash a yellow light several times prior to the opening motif of Beethoven's fifth symphony (a CS for salvation) eventually the yellow light itself would elicit the CR of salvation.
12. What is biological preparedness? Give an example.
Biological preparedness is a term coined by Seligman (1971) to refer to the predisposition of members of a species to be more readily conditioned to some neutral stimuli as conditioned stimulus then others. For example humans learn more quickly to fear snakes and insects that pose a threat to our survival than to stimuli such as pictures of flowers that are nonthreatening.
16. Define respondent stimulus generalization and give an example.
Respondent stimulus generalization occurs when an organism has been conditioned so that a particular CS elicits a CR, and then a similar stimulus elicits that CR. For example while the dentist is drilling a cavity, you experience e pain. The dentist's drill is likely to become a CS causing you to cringe. Later at the meat market you hear the sound of the butcher's cutting machine, you feel yourself cringing.
17. Define respondent stimulus discrimination and give an example.
Respondent stimulus discrimination occurs when a stimulus that functions as a CS to elicit a CR because that stimulus has been paired with a US that elicits that CR, but a similar stimulus does not function as a CS for that CR because the second stimulus has been paired with extinction trials. For example if we were to experience several episodes of the dentist's drill paired with pain, and several episodes of the butchers cutting machine never being paired with pain the we would eventually show respondent stimulus discrimination.
What is aversion therapy? Give an example
Aversion therapy is the process of pairing something unpleasant with an undesirable behavior with the goal of decreasing that undesirable behavior. For example disulfiram is a US causing nausea after several pairings of drinking alcohol with nausea (caused by the disulfiram), the sight, smell, and taste of the drink became CS's causing nausea as a CR. A side effect of this respondent condition process was that the client no longer experienced the desire to drink alcohol.
24. What is operant behavior? Give an example
Operant behavior is behavior that is influenced by its consequences. Behavior that affects or "operates on" the environment to produce consequences and which is, in turn, influenced by those consequences. For example putting gas in your car, asking for directions, writing an exam, turning on a computer and making breakfast.
25. What is operant conditioning? Give an example.
Operant conditioning is a type of learning in which behavior is modified by its consequences. For example, through operant conditioning, we have learned to turn on a water tap to produce water, and not to touch a hot stove because the pain following past instances of doing so.
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