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the study of the structure of an organism


the study of the functions an organism performs


how organisms obtain, process, and use their energy resources (regulating body temperature, maintaining homeostasis)


groups of cells with a common structure and function, from the Latin word meaning "weave"

Epithelial Tissue

covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body - tight junctions

glandular epithelia

absorb or secrete chemical solutions

mucous membrane

secreted by epithelia to keep the surface lubricated and moist

simple epithelium

has a single layer of cells

stratified epithelium

has multiple layers of cells

pseudostratified epithelium

single-layered but appears stratified because the cells vary in length


like dice


like bricks standing on end


like floor tiles

connective tissue

functions mainly to bind and support other tissues; have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix

collagenous fibers

made of collagen, the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom; nonelastic, doesn't tear easily when pulled lengthwise

elastic fibers

long threads made of elastin (protein); rubbery/elastic

reticular fibers

very thin and branched, made of collagen and form a tightly woven fabric

muscle tissue

composed of long muscle fibers that are capable of contracting - three types (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth)

nervous tissue

senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another


group of tissues


sheets of connective tissue; suspend the organs of vertebrates in moist or fluid-filled cavities

thoracic cavity

cavity that houses the lungs and heart

abdominal cavity

lower cavity, separated by diaphragm

metabolic rate

the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval


bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism, and their body temperature is maintianed within a relatively narrow range.


gain heat mostly from external sources; requires a much smaller energy expenditure by an animal than the endothermic strategy

basal metabolic rate (BMR)

the metabolic rate of a nongrowing endotherm that is at rest, has an empty stomach, and is not experiencing stress

standard metabolic rate (SMR)

the metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, nonstressed ectotherm at a particular temperature

interstitial fluid

the internal environment of vertebrates (fills the spaces between vertebrate cells, exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood contained in capillaries)


"steady state" or internal balance

negative feedback

type of control circuit (too much of a product shuts down the process); thermostat turning off

positive feedback

too much of a product speeds up the production; childbirth


the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range - critical to survival


gain most of their heat from the environment (low metabolic rate - cannot affect body temperature)


use metabolic heat to regulate their body temperature

integumentary system

the outer covering of the body (skin, hair, and nails)


an increase in the diameter of superficial blood vessels triggered by nerve signals that relax the muscles of the vessel walls - results in elevated blood flow


reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial vessels

countercurrent heat exchanger

another circulatory adaptation - an arrangement of blood vessels that is important for reducing heat loss in many endotherms - geese and dolphins

nonshivering thermogenesis

when some hormones in memmals cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity and produce heat instead of ATP

brown fat

in the neck and between the shoulders that is specialized for rapid heat production


physiological response where animals adjust to a new range of environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks

stress-induced proteins

molecules that help animals adjust to temperature changes

heat-shock proteins

a stress-induced protein that helps prevent cell death when an organism is challenged by severe changes in the cellular environment


a physiological state in which activity is low and metablism decreases


long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity


summer torpor (slow metabolism and inactivity) that enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies

daily torpor

small animals and birds (don't eat during the day/night)

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