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48 terms

Chapter 40 Notecards

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Anatomy
the study of the structure of an organism
Physiology
the study of the functions an organism performs
Bioenergetics
how organisms obtain, process, and use their energy resources (regulating body temperature, maintaining homeostasis)
Tissue
groups of cells with a common structure and function, from the Latin word meaning "weave"
Epithelial Tissue
covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body - tight junctions
glandular epithelia
absorb or secrete chemical solutions
mucous membrane
secreted by epithelia to keep the surface lubricated and moist
simple epithelium
has a single layer of cells
stratified epithelium
has multiple layers of cells
pseudostratified epithelium
single-layered but appears stratified because the cells vary in length
cuboidal
like dice
columnar
like bricks standing on end
squamous
like floor tiles
connective tissue
functions mainly to bind and support other tissues; have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
collagenous fibers
made of collagen, the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom; nonelastic, doesn't tear easily when pulled lengthwise
elastic fibers
long threads made of elastin (protein); rubbery/elastic
reticular fibers
very thin and branched, made of collagen and form a tightly woven fabric
muscle tissue
composed of long muscle fibers that are capable of contracting - three types (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth)
nervous tissue
senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another
organ
group of tissues
mesenteries
sheets of connective tissue; suspend the organs of vertebrates in moist or fluid-filled cavities
thoracic cavity
cavity that houses the lungs and heart
abdominal cavity
lower cavity, separated by diaphragm
metabolic rate
the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval
endothermic
bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism, and their body temperature is maintianed within a relatively narrow range.
ectothermic
gain heat mostly from external sources; requires a much smaller energy expenditure by an animal than the endothermic strategy
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the metabolic rate of a nongrowing endotherm that is at rest, has an empty stomach, and is not experiencing stress
standard metabolic rate (SMR)
the metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, nonstressed ectotherm at a particular temperature
interstitial fluid
the internal environment of vertebrates (fills the spaces between vertebrate cells, exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood contained in capillaries)
homeostasis
"steady state" or internal balance
negative feedback
type of control circuit (too much of a product shuts down the process); thermostat turning off
positive feedback
too much of a product speeds up the production; childbirth
thermoregulation
the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range - critical to survival
ectotherms
gain most of their heat from the environment (low metabolic rate - cannot affect body temperature)
endotherms
use metabolic heat to regulate their body temperature
integumentary system
the outer covering of the body (skin, hair, and nails)
vasodilation
an increase in the diameter of superficial blood vessels triggered by nerve signals that relax the muscles of the vessel walls - results in elevated blood flow
vasoconstriction
reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial vessels
countercurrent heat exchanger
another circulatory adaptation - an arrangement of blood vessels that is important for reducing heat loss in many endotherms - geese and dolphins
nonshivering thermogenesis
when some hormones in memmals cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity and produce heat instead of ATP
brown fat
in the neck and between the shoulders that is specialized for rapid heat production
acclimatization
physiological response where animals adjust to a new range of environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks
stress-induced proteins
molecules that help animals adjust to temperature changes
heat-shock proteins
a stress-induced protein that helps prevent cell death when an organism is challenged by severe changes in the cellular environment
torpor
a physiological state in which activity is low and metablism decreases
hibernation
long-term torpor that is an adaptation to winter cold and food scarcity
estivation
summer torpor (slow metabolism and inactivity) that enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies
daily torpor
small animals and birds (don't eat during the day/night)