Create an account
how organisms obtain, process, and use their energy resources (regulating body temperature, maintaining homeostasis)
covers the outside of the body and lines organs and cavities within the body - tight junctions
functions mainly to bind and support other tissues; have a sparse population of cells scattered through an extracellular matrix
made of collagen, the most abundant protein in the animal kingdom; nonelastic, doesn't tear easily when pulled lengthwise
composed of long muscle fibers that are capable of contracting - three types (skeletal, cardiac, and smooth)
senses stimuli and transmits signals in the form of nerve impulses from one part of the animal to another
sheets of connective tissue; suspend the organs of vertebrates in moist or fluid-filled cavities
the sum of all the energy-requiring biochemical reactions occurring over a given time interval
bodies are warmed mostly by heat generated by metabolism, and their body temperature is maintianed within a relatively narrow range.
gain heat mostly from external sources; requires a much smaller energy expenditure by an animal than the endothermic strategy
basal metabolic rate (BMR)
the metabolic rate of a nongrowing endotherm that is at rest, has an empty stomach, and is not experiencing stress
standard metabolic rate (SMR)
the metabolic rate of a resting, fasting, nonstressed ectotherm at a particular temperature
the internal environment of vertebrates (fills the spaces between vertebrate cells, exchanges nutrients and wastes with blood contained in capillaries)
type of control circuit (too much of a product shuts down the process); thermostat turning off
the process by which animals maintain an internal temperature within a tolerable range - critical to survival
gain most of their heat from the environment (low metabolic rate - cannot affect body temperature)
an increase in the diameter of superficial blood vessels triggered by nerve signals that relax the muscles of the vessel walls - results in elevated blood flow
reduces blood flow and heat transfer by decreasing the diameter of superficial vessels
countercurrent heat exchanger
another circulatory adaptation - an arrangement of blood vessels that is important for reducing heat loss in many endotherms - geese and dolphins
when some hormones in memmals cause mitochondria to increase their metabolic activity and produce heat instead of ATP
physiological response where animals adjust to a new range of environmental temperatures over a period of days or weeks
a stress-induced protein that helps prevent cell death when an organism is challenged by severe changes in the cellular environment
summer torpor (slow metabolism and inactivity) that enables animals to survive long periods of high temperatures and scarce water supplies
Please allow access to your computer’s microphone to use Voice Recording.
Having trouble? Click here for help.
We can’t access your microphone!
Click the icon above to update your browser permissions and try again
Reload the page to try again!Reload
Press Cmd-0 to reset your zoom
Press Ctrl-0 to reset your zoom
It looks like your browser might be zoomed in or out. Your browser needs to be zoomed to a normal size to record audio.
Please upgrade Flash or install Chrome
to use Voice Recording.
For more help, see our troubleshooting page.
Your microphone is muted
For help fixing this issue, see this FAQ.
Star this term
You can study starred terms together