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any substance that produces toxicity following exposure. often associated with human made substances
therapeutic use of chemicals and minerals in medicine
"the right dose differentiates a poison from a remedy
conduct studies, in lab animals to assess the relative toxicity of chemicals of interest
conducts experiments to understand how a chemical functions at the organismal/cellular/biochemical/molecular levels to perturb normal biochemistry and physiology
evaluate toxicological and epidemiological data to establish standars for the protection of huma health
the proportion of dose that is available biologically and which reaches the systemic circulation
individual/graded dose response curve
dose related increase in the severity of the response
usually a measurable threshold for an effect
quantal dose response relationship
describe dose response relationships that are all or none (typically determination of a median lethal dose)
chemical produces injury to one species or one type of organism without harming another
the toxicity of the mixture is the sum of the individual toxic responses (pesticides)
2+2=8 two chemicals are both toxic, but co-exposure cause a greater response together than the sum of the individual responses
most important mechanism for absorption for toxic compounds.
filtration through pores
translocation of chemicals through membranes by means other than passive diffusion, important only for small chemicals
translocation of chemicals through membrane that requires energy and specific membrane carrier. goes against concentration
translocation of chemicals through membrane that binds to carrier. does not require energy but requires membrane carrier and a concentration gradient
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