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Bio Chapter 3
Terms in this set (103)
A chemical compound containing the element carbon and usually the element hydrogen
Why are carbon atoms the lead players in the chemistry of life?
A carbon atom has 4 electrons in a valence shell that holds 8. Carbon completes its outer shell by sharing electrons with other atoms in four covalent bonds.
__________ form the backbone of most organic molecules.
Two molecules have the same molecular formula, but their arrangements are different. Are they the same?
Carbon skeletons ______ in length
Carbon skeletons may be __________ or ________
unbranched or branched
Carbon skeletons may be arranged in _____.
In the abbreviated ring structures, each corner represents a carbon and its attached hydrogens
Organic compounds with the same molecular formula but different structures and, therefore, different properties
An organic compound composed only of the elements carbon and hydrogen
Where is hydrocarbon normally found?
Crude oil and natural gas
An atom (or group of atoms) present in a molecule which determines the characteristic of properties of that molecule.
Carbon is ___________ in its ability to form large diverse molecules
because carbon can form bonds (single, double, or triple) with other carbons and it can bond with atoms of other elements
Example of a functional group and its properties
hydroxyl (-OH) group in an alcohol
OH (hydroxyl) — converts non-polar to polar
Main four classes of macromolecules
carbohydrates, lipids, proteins, & nucleic acids
Relationship between monomers and polymers (macromolecules)
Monomers - building blocks of polymers
Polymers - made from identical building blocks strung together
Monomers are linked together to form
polymers by removing water.
Polymers are broken apart by the addition of water
Types of carbohydrates
sugar monomer (glucose, fructose, galactose)
2 monosaccharides hooked together by dehydration reaction
macromolecules comprised of thousands
of monosaccharides - structural & storage macromolecules
What makes maltose?
glucose + glucose
What makes sucrose?
glucose + fructose
What makes lactose?
glucose + galactose
composed of glucose monomer; used by plants
for energy storage
composed of glucose monomer; used by
animals for energy storage
composed of glucose monomer; forms plant cell walls
used by insects and crustaceans to build exoskeleton; found in cell walls of fungi
How many carbon sugars Galactose, Glucose, Fructose have?
6 carbon sugars
High-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
glucose atoms are
rearranged to make the glucose isomer, fructose; 55% fructose and 45% glucose
Structure, functions, properties, and types of Lipids
- Water insoluble (hydrophobic - water fearing)
- Important long-term energy storage
- Contain twice as much energy as a polysaccharide
- Consist of mainly - carbon & hydrogen; very little oxygen
- Lipids vary great deal in their structure and function
Large lipid made from two molecules: glycerol & fatty acids
A fat contains ____ glycerol linked to _____ fatty acids
3 fatty acids
have one or more double bonds in their hydrocarbon chains (between two carbon atoms)
Unsaturated fat state at room remperature
Liquids at room temperature; kinks or bend in carbon
chain, prevents them from packing together tightly and
Example of unsaturated fats
vegetable oils, fish oil
No double bonds in their HC chains; solid at room temperature
Example of Saturated fats
butter, animal fat (beef & other meats)
Hydrogenated vegetable oils
Unsaturated fats that have been converted to saturated fat by adding hydrogen.
- major component of all cell membranes
- Structurally similar to fats
- Contain 2 fatty acid chains attached to glycerol
- Phospholipid head are hydrophilic and fatty acid tails are hydrophobic
lipids in which the carbon skeleton contains 4 fused carbon rings
Most common component in animal cells
Starting material for making steroids, including sex hormones
Why do so many organic compounds exist?
Carbon has the ability to make many bonds because it is able to bond with up to 4 different atoms, as well as make ring structures with itself.
Combination of _______ and _______ creates an Amino Acid.
Amino and Carboxyl
Is glucose is a polymer or a monomer?
Polymers are formed by ________________, also known as _______________________
dehydration synthesis, AKA condensation reaction
1 Carbohydrate molecule is _____________ (sugar).
Saturated fat acid vs unsaturated fat acid
A chemical group consisting of an oxygen atom bonded to a hydrogen atom
A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom linked by a double bond to an oxygen atom.
A chemical group consisting of a nitrogen atom bonded to two hydrogen atoms
A chemical group consisting of a phosphorus atom bonded to four oxygen atoms
A chemical group consisting of a carbon atom bonded to three hydrogen atoms
A giant molecule formed by the joining of smaller molecules, usually by a dehydration reaction: a protein, carbohydrate, or nucleic acid
A chemical reaction in which two molecules become covalently bonded to each other with the removal of a water molecule
A macromolecule, usually a protein, that serves as a biological catalyst, changing the rate of a chemical reaction without being consumed by the reaction
Member of the class of biological molecules consisting of single-monomer sugars (monosaccharides), two-monomer sugars (disaccharides, and polymers (polysaccharides)
A six-carbon monosaccharide that serves as a building block for many polysaccharides and whose oxidation in cellular respiration is a major source of ATP for cells
What is meant by a molecule's "carbon skeleton" and how can carbon skeletons vary?
The carbon skeleton refers to the number and arrangement of carbon atoms in a molecule.
An unidentified molecule is found in a sample of water near a chemical plant. An initial analysis finds that the molecule contains only carbon and hydrogen. What type of molecule is this?
This type of molecule is a hydrocarbon because it has only carbon and hydrogen.
Which functional group is alcohol?
Which is the only functional group that is non-polar?
Which of the following is not a characteristic of monosaccharides?
a. Generally a multiple of CH2O
b. Can be linked together to make polymers
c. Contain hydroxyl and carbonyl groups
d. All of the above are characteristics of monosaccharides.
d. All of the above are characteristics of monosaccharides.
The carbonyl group is on an interior carbon atom.
The carbonyl group is on a terminal carbon atom.
Why do sugars, like fructose, readily dissolve in water?
The sugars readily dissolve in water because they have hydroxyl groups. The hydroxyl groups make them polar, which allows them to be attracted to water.
Two monosaccharides joined by a dehydration synthesis would form a(n) ____________.
An unsaturated fat can be turned into a solid or semisolid state by ____________.
a. omega-3 fatty acidification
one end is hydrophobic, and the other end is hydrophilic
What are the elements in protein?
C, H, O, N, & S
An organic molecule containing a carboxyl group and an amino group; serves as monomer of proteins
Amino acid structure
How many amino acids are there?
The covalent bond between two amino acid units in a polypeptide, formed by a dehydration reaction
Peptide bond that is made from two amino acids
A polymer (chain) of amino acids linked by peptide bonds
Approximately how long are polypeptides?
They are at least 100 amino acids in length
Each polypeptide has a unique sequence of amino acids
A functional biological molecule consisting of one or more polypeptides folded into a specific three-dimensional structure
A process in which a protein unravels, losing its specific structure and hence function; can be caused by changes in pH or salt concentration or by high temperature; also refers to the separation of the two strands of the DNA double helix, caused by similar factors
What do proteins do?
storage → albumin (egg white)
structure → keratin (hair, nails)
chemical reactions → Enzyme → Rubisco (helps during photosynthesis)
immune response → antibodies
Chemical catalysts that speed and regulate virtually all chemical reactions in your cells
Primary Structure of proteins
Lysozyme - - one long polymer of amino acids
Secondary Structure of proteins
Alpha Helix, Beta pleated sheets (silk)
Tertiary Structure of proteins
Quaternary Structure of proteins
More than one chain in globular structure
e.g. hemoglobin, collagen
What elements are in Nucleic acids?
Examples of nucleic acids
DNA & RNA; monomer - nucleotide
What is the 5-C sugar in DNA?
What is the 5-C sugar in RNA?
Nitrogenous base of DNA
Nitrogenous base of RNA
Structure of DNA
Structure of RNA
Where is DNA located?
Where is RNA located?
Types of DNA
Types of RNA
mRNA (messenger), rRNA (ribosomal), tRNA (transfer)
A building block of nucleic acids, consisting of five-carbon sugar covalently bonded to a nitrogenous base and one or more phosphate groups -- is a monomer
Parts of nucleotide
a 5-C sugar + Nitrogenous base + a phosphate group
Two types of polynucleotides are
DNA & RNA
Example of a nucleotide
ATP (Adenosine Tri-Phosphate)
Make up of high-fructose corn syrup (HFCS)
55% fructose + 45% glucose
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