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68 terms

OCCT Review 7th Geography

STUDY
PLAY
Acculturation
the adoption of the behavior patterns of the surrounding culture
Afterlife
A life believed to follow death
Agnostic
one who believes that the existence of a god can be neither proven nor disproven
Atheist
someone who denies the existence of god
Bar Mitzvah
(Judaism) an initiation ceremony marking the 13th birthday of a Jewish boy and signifying the beginning of religious responsibility
Belief
something held as true or real even if it cannot be proven
Caste System
a set of rigid social categories in India that determined not only a person's occupation and economic potential, but also his or her position in society
Christianity
a religion that developed out of Judaism which is based on the life and teachings of Jesus
Civilization
a society with cities, a central government, job specialization, and social classes
Clan
a group of families who trace their roots to the same ancestor
Cultural Trait
a behavioral characteristic of a people, such as language, skill, or custom, passed from one generation to another
Culture
all the knowledge and values shared by a society. The way of life of a group of people
Culture Clash
the problems and conflicts that occur when two cultures come into contact.
Custom
accepted or habitual practice
Deity
any supernatural being worshiped as controlling some part of the world or some aspect of life or who is the personification of a force; a god or goddess
Dharma
In Hindu belief, a person's religious and moral duties; one's path in life.
Dialect
a form of language spoken by people in a particular region or group
Diversity
the variety of people in a group
Economy
System by which goods and services are produced and distributed to meet people's needs
Ethnic Group
people of the same race or nationality who share a distinctive culture
Ethnocentrism
tendency to view one's own culture and group as superior to all other cultures and groups
Fact
a concept whose truth can be proved
Folkways
traditional social customs
Gaffe
a clumsy social error; a faux pas; social blunder
Gender Roles
Expectations about what is appropriate behavior for each sex.
Geography
the study of the earth's surface, climate, continents, countries, peoples, industries, and products.
Guru
a Hindu or Buddhist religious leader and spiritual teacher
Hinduism
A religion and philosophy developed in ancient India, characterized by a belief in reincarnation and a supreme being who takes many forms
Idol
An image used as an object of worship
Islam
the religious faith of Muslims, based on the words and religious system founded by the prophet Muhammad and taught by the Koran, the basic principle of which is absolute submission to a unique and personal god, Allah.
Jesus
a teacher and prophet born in Bethlehem and active in Nazareth, Religious leader and founder of Christianity
Judaism
the monotheistic religion of the Jews having its spiritual and ethical principles embodied chiefly in the Torah and in the Talmud
Karma
In Hindu and Buddhist belief, all the actions that affect a person's fate in the next life; one's deeds in life.
Laws
enforceable rules of conduct in a society
Meditation
practice of quiet reflection to clear the mind and find inner peace
Moksha
The Hindu concept of the spirit's 'liberation' from the endless cycle of rebirths.
Monotheism
belief in a single God
Moral
concerned with principles of right and wrong or conforming to standards of behavior and character based on those principles
Mores
accepted standards and customs of a social group; accepted rules of behavior.
Muhammad
the Arab prophet who founded Islam (570-632)
Nationalism
a strong feeling of pride in and devotion to one's country
Norm
an understood rule for accepted and expected behavior
Opinion
a personal point of view
Orthodox
adhering to the traditional and established, especially in religion
Pagan
A follower of a polytheistic religion in ancient times.
Polytheism
belief in multiple Gods
Prejudice
an unjustifiable attitude toward a group and its members
Prophet
a religious teacher who is regarded as someone who speaks for God or for a god
Race
people who are believed to belong to the same genetic stock
Racism
Belief that one racial group is superior to another
Religion
a strong belief in a supernatural power or powers that control human destiny
Ritual
a ceremonial act; a customary procedure
New Testament
The second part of the Christian Bible, containing descriptions of the life and teachings of Jesus and of his early followers
Sacred
made or declared or believed to be holy
Shiva
an important Hindu deity who in the trinity of gods was the Destroyer
Shrine
A place of worship that is often dedicated to a sacred object or person
Social Structure
the way in which a society is organized into predictable relationships
Socialization
the process of learning the rules of behavior of the culture within which an individual is born and will live
Stereotype
a generalized (sometimes accurate but often overgeneralized) belief about a group of people
Subculture
a group that is part of the dominant culture but that differs from it in some important respects
Taoism
philosophical system developed by of Lao-tzu and Chuang-tzu advocating a simple honest life and noninterference with the course of natural events
Bible
the holy book of Christianity
Torah
(Judaism) the scroll of parchment on which the first five books of the Hebrew Scripture is written
Koran
Holy book of Islam
Traditions
customs or beliefs handed down from generation to generation
Untouchables
lowest class of people in the caste system of Hinduism, do all the dirty work of society
Worship
show devotion to (a deity)
Hierarchy
a group organized by rank