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rights that 1. enable individuals to engage in activities central to citizenship or legal immigrant status, such as voting or petitioning the government, or 2. guarantee freedom from oppressive actions by others that seek to deny an individual's full status as an equal member of society.
freedoms protected from interference by the government or by others, such as freedom of speech and freedom of religion
Bill of rights
the first 10 amendments to the constitution, which enumerate a set of liberties not to be violated by the government an a set of rights to be protected by the government
Jim crow laws
laws passed after the civil war to establish a system of segregation of public facilities and private establishments that made african americans second-class citizens
Civil rights movement
a social movement of the 1950s and 1960s focused primarily on the situation of african americans, but also promoting the goals that all people be treated as equals under the law that discrimination based on race, religion, ethnicity, gender, and place of origin be eliminated
the right to legal protections against arbitrary deprivation of life, liberty, or property
the principle that laws passed and enforced by the states must apply fairly to all individuals
the process by which rights and liberties established by the bill of rights are applied to state and local governments through the 14th amendment
the highest-level standard used by the Supreme court to determine whether a law is compatible with the constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered unconstitutional unless it advances a "compelling state interest" and represents the least intrusive means
Rational basis test
the lowest-level standard used by the supreme court to determine whether a law is compatible with the constitution. A law subject to this standard is assumed to be constitutional as long as its goals are clearly linked to its means
an intermediate standard used by the supreme court to determine whether a law is compatible with the constitution. A law subject to this standard is considered constitutional if it advances "an important government objective" and is "substantially related" to the objective
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