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Meteorology Today Chapter 3 (9th ed)
For our science olympiad team
Terms in this set (40)
Annual range of temperature;
The difference between the warmest and coldest months at any given location.
Acronym for Automated Surface Observing Systems. A system designed to provide continuous information of wind, temperature, pressure, cloud base height, and runway visibility at selected airports.
The equinox at which the sun approaches the Southern Hemisphere and passes directly over the equator. Occurs around September 23.
A temperature-measuring device usually consisting of two dissimilar metals that expand and contract differentially as the temperature changes.
A rapid fall in temperature within 24 hours that often requires increased protection for agriculture, industry, commerce, and human activities.
Controls of temperature;
The main factors that cause variations in temperature from one place to another.
A form of degree-day used in estimating the amount of energy necessary to reduce the effective temperature of warm air. A cooling degree-day is a day on which the average temperature is one degree above a desired base temperature.
Daily range of temperature;
The difference between the maximum and minimun temperatures for any given day.
Thermometers that use elements that convert energy from one form to another (transducers). Common electrical thermometers include the electrical resistance thermometer, thermocouple, and thermistor.
On a small scale, a form of mechanical stirring taking place when twisting eddies of air are able to mix hot surface air with the cooler air above. On a larger scale, it can be induced by the lifting of warm air along a front (frontal uplift) or along a topographic barrier (orographic uplift).
A condition occurring over a widespread area when the surface air temperature remains below freezing for a sufficient time to damage certain agricultural crops. A freeze most often occurs as cold air is advected into a region, causing freezing conditions to exist in a deep layer of surface air. Also called advection frost.
The partial freezing of exposed parts of the body, causing injury to the skin and sometimes to deeper tissues.
A form of the degree-day used as a guide for crop planting and for estimating crop maturity dates.
A form of the degree-day used as an index for fuel consumption.
The deterioration in one's mental and physical condition brought on by a rapid lowering of human body temperature.
An unseasonably warm spell with clear skies near the middle of autumn. Usually follows a substantial period of cool weather.
An instrument designed to measure the intensity of infrared radiation emitted by an object. Also called infrared sensor.
The incoming solar radiation that reaches the earth and the atmosphere.
A boxlike (often wooden) structure designed to protect weather instruments from direct sunshine and precipitation.
A line connecting points of equal temperature.
A thermometer with a small constriction just above the bulb. It is designed to measure the maximum air temperature.
Mean annual temperature;
The average temperature at any given location for the entire year.
Mean daily temperature;
The average of the highest and lowest temperature for a 24-hour period.
A thermometer designed to measure the minimum air temperature during a desired time period.
See Radiation inversion.
Oil heaters placed in orchards that generate heat and promote convective circulations to protect fruit trees from damaging low temperatures. Also called smudge pots.
An increase in temperature with height due to radiational cooling of the earth's surface. Also called a nocturnal inversion.
The process by which the earth's surface and adjacent air cool by emitting infrared radiation.
See Infrared radiometer.
The sensation of temperature that the human body feels in contrast to the actual temperature of the environment as measured with a thermometer.
See Orchard heaters.
Approximately June 21 in the Northern Hemisphere when the sun is highest in the sky and directly overhead at latitude 231D2°N, the Tropic of Cancer.
Horizontal zones of vegetation found along hill-sides that are primarily the result of vertical temperature variations.
An instrument that measures and records air temperature.
An instrument for measuring temperature. The most common is liquid-in-glass, which has a sealed glass tube attached to a glass bulb filled with liquid.
The equinox at which the sun approaches the Northern Hemisphere and passes directly over the equator. Occurs around March 20.
The cooling effect of any combination of temperature and wind, expressed as the loss of body heat. Also called wind-chill index.
Fans placed in orchards for the purpose of mixing cold surface air with warmer air above.
Approximately December 21 in the Northern Hemisphere when the sun is lowest in the sky and directly overhead at latitude 231D2°S, the Tropic of Capricorn.