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accidental condition

an element that helps to explain what's being defined but isn't essential to it

ad hominem argument

a fallacy of argument in which a writer's claim is answered by irrelevant attacks on his or her character


an extended comparison between something unfamiliar and something more familiar for the purpose of illuminating or dramatizing the unfamiliar


a figure of speech involving repetition, particularly of the same word at the beginning of several clauses


the use of parallel structures to call attention to contrasts or opposites


use of a title, epithet, or description in place of a name


spoken, written, or visual text that expresses a point of view; the use of evidence and reason to discover some version of the truth, the attempt to change someone else's point of view

artistic appeal

support for an argument that a writer creates based on principles of reason and shared knowledge rather than on facts and evidence


a belief regarded as true, upon which other claims are based


the person or persons to whom an argument is directed


the quality conveyed by a writer who is knowledgeable about his or her subject and confident in that knowledge


the evidence provided to support a warrant

bandwagon appeal

a fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is following it

begging the question

a fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the very grounds that are in doubt or dispute

causal argument

an argument that seeks to explain the effect(s) of a cause, the cause(s) of an effect, or a causal chain in which A causes B, B causes C, C causes D, and so on

ceremonial argument

an argument that deals with current values and addresses questions of praise and blame; includes eulogies and graduation speeches

appeal based on character

a strategy in which a writer presents an authoritative or credible self-image to dispose an audience to accept a claim


a statement that asserts a belief or truth; key component in Toulmin argument


the suggestions or associations that surround most words and extend beyond their literal meaning, creating associational effects

cultural assumption

a belief regarded as true or commonsensical within a particular culture

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