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an element that helps to explain what's being defined but isn't essential to it
ad hominem argument
a fallacy of argument in which a writer's claim is answered by irrelevant attacks on his or her character
an extended comparison between something unfamiliar and something more familiar for the purpose of illuminating or dramatizing the unfamiliar
a figure of speech involving repetition, particularly of the same word at the beginning of several clauses
spoken, written, or visual text that expresses a point of view; the use of evidence and reason to discover some version of the truth, the attempt to change someone else's point of view
support for an argument that a writer creates based on principles of reason and shared knowledge rather than on facts and evidence
the quality conveyed by a writer who is knowledgeable about his or her subject and confident in that knowledge
a fallacy of argument in which a course of action is recommended on the grounds that everyone else is following it
begging the question
a fallacy of argument in which a claim is based on the very grounds that are in doubt or dispute
an argument that seeks to explain the effect(s) of a cause, the cause(s) of an effect, or a causal chain in which A causes B, B causes C, C causes D, and so on
an argument that deals with current values and addresses questions of praise and blame; includes eulogies and graduation speeches
appeal based on character
a strategy in which a writer presents an authoritative or credible self-image to dispose an audience to accept a claim
the suggestions or associations that surround most words and extend beyond their literal meaning, creating associational effects
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