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defiance theory/ labeling

lawrence sherman
feel wronged by cj system, unfair punishment, act badly toward society
wronged by the label

market based


criminality and economic conditions


peacekeeping criminology



marx and engels

conflict theorists

bonger, chamberliss, vold, turk, dahrendorf, currie, sellin, chesneylind

drift/ neutralization

matza and sykes
denial of victim, denial of responsibility, injury
drift between conforming and non conforming

shaming/social reaction/reformulation of labeling theory


primary and secondary deviance/ labeling theory


moral entrapeneuars, labeling

those who pass laws to regulate morality, laws are reflected from their beliefs

dramatization of evil, labeling

once you label someone it sticks with them
critical item is social audience

self-control, general theory

hirschi and gottfredson
\ ability to weigh consequences
lack of self control implies we will engage in crime w/o calculating rikss

social control/bond -- book

attachment, commitment, involvement, belief in law and order
"causes of delinquency"

differential opportunity

cloward and ohlin
criminal, conflict, retreatist

status frustration theory/ delinquent boys/ middle class measuring rod

Albert Cohen

general strain theory


strain theory

Merton -- took from Durkheim anomie


4 types of coercion:
non coercive consistent: pro social, non criminal
non coercive erratic: minor crimes, explore deviant pleasures, lying
coercive consistent: predisposition for mental illness, potential for enraged homicide
coercive erratic: strong probability of chronic crime, serious street crime

greed,egoism, crime


labeling theory/ social reaction theory

cooley &LEMERT
looking glass self - you construct who you are by what people tell you
symbolic interactionism is reason we label

containment theory

2 catergories of theories:
push - push individuals to other side of law (strain)
pull- lure people into crime (diff assoc. social learning)

focal concerns theory

walter miller,

routine activites theory

cohen and felson,
must have: 1- motivated offender 2- suitable target 3- lack of capable guardian

Classical (detterence, rational choice)

Bentham and Beccaria
punishment should fit crime
no room for rehab
free will and rational
doesnt detter all criminals
maximize pleasure minimize pain

Positive (neoclassical)

durkheim/ lombroso
punishment should fit criminal
free will, but also outside factors

biological positivism

crime in not learned but in your gentics
lombroso- born criminal, criminaloids,

body types

meso-most likely to commit crime, muscular
endo-fat, least likely
ecto- in between, scrawny

chicago school (ecological, loop area)

shaw and mckay
crime product of population density
birthplace of sociology
habitat is strong predictor of crime

collective efficacy

strong community = less crime

differential association

frequency duration priority intensity
learn tools, motives, drives

social learning

akers, based off diff assoc.

code of street

elijah anderson
crime is subculturally transmitted through codes learn in specific environments
codes, rules, norms


dont tolerate crime, strong religion


crime is normal
developed area


labeling theorist
wrote: outsiders, becoming a marijuana user, stigma, asylums

unraveling delinquency and crime


persistance theory

repeat offending - recidivsim - chronicity of crime

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