Terms in this set (75)
What two branches has Daoism historically been understood to have?
philosophical and religious
In the Confucian tradition, xin is usually translated as
What topic addressed in the Laozi (or Daodejing) is shunned in the Zhuangzi?
What are the sanjiao, or 'three teachings', of Chinese tradition?
Confucianism, Daoism, and Buddhism
During what dynasty was Buddhism introduced into China?
In Japan, the butsudan is
a household altar
What two Japanese monks brought back new forms of Buddhism from China in the ninth century, helping to domesticate and popularize it in Japan?
saicho and Kukai
What Japanese form of minimalist poetry reflects the Zen emphasis on penetrating to the essence of reality?
Amitabha, the central buddha of the Pure Land tradition, is known in Japan as
Where are the Grand Shrines of Amaterasu located?
What are the mudang in Korean tradition?
What codified samurai ethics is known as the 'way of the warrior'?
What is the nenbutsu?
a phrase that is repeatedly chanted as the central practice of Pure Land Buddhism
In Confucian tradition, li refers not only to religious ritual but also
the rules of social etiquette and everyday courtesy
The eighth-century text containing the creation myths of Japan is called the
Which of the following is NOT an example of common religious practice in Japan mentioned in the textbook?
gathering weekly for communal worship and singing
What idea did the Mandate of Heaven establish?
that rulers are given the right to rule from heaven through moral character and good governance
Central to most religious practices in Japan is
the pragmatic desire to secure various benefits, either in this world or in the next
What Korean new religion combines Christian monotheism with East Asian (particularly Confucian) emphasis on balance and harmony with the universe?
the religion of the heavenly way (cheondogyo)
Honji suijaku in Japanese tradition is the concept that
kami are local manifestations of buddhas or bodhisattvas
In Confucian tradition, the term li refers to
rites' or 'ritual'
Who developed Pure Land Buddhism, as we know it today, in Japan?
According to the Nihon Shoki ('Chronicles of Japan'), what religion did the Korean ruler recommend to the Japanese king in the sixth century?
When was the Japanese word for 'religion' first coined?
the late nineteenth century
Which major new religious movement traces its roots ultimately to the teachings of Nichiren?
The Daodejing (Classic of the Way and Power) is traditionally attributed to
The ancient Chinese manual of divination, based on 64 hexagrams, is called the
Classic of Changes
'Filial piety', emphasized by Confucius, means
respecting and caring for one's parents
In what century was the first Buddhist temple in Japan constructed?
The term kamikaze, in reference to the suicide attacks by Japanese pilots on American naval vessels in the Second World War, means ________
: 'divine wind'
What popular bodhisattva is known in Japan for his ability to free tormented souls from hell, as well as protect children and travellers?
Jizo (or Ojizo-sama)
What change in religious concepts and in understanding of the universe occurred between the Shang and Zhou dynasties in ancient China?
A shift in emphasis from the more personal Lord on high to the impersonal concept of heaven
What religion was designated the official religion of the state after the Meiji Restoration?
way of the kami"
What tradition was associated with Japanese imperialism in Korea in the late nineteenth and early twentieth centuries?
When did "Shinto" begin to take form as a distinct and self-conscious entity?
the medieval period
The Japanese artistic practice of ikebana involves
During what period in Japan formerly syncretic Buddhist-Shinto institutions forcibly divided?
Which kami of the sun became the primary deity associated with the Japanese imperial family?
What new religious movement in Japan was responsible for the deadly sarin gas attacks on the Tokyo subway system in 1995?
What system of thought or religion inspired the creation of four distinct classes (samurai, farmers, artisans, and merchants) in Japanese society?
The warrior elite in Japanese tradition are known as the
The word 'Zen' is the Japanese version of what Chinese word?
Which central Confucian term has been translated as 'humaneness', 'benevolence', 'compassion', or 'goodness'?
What first-century Confucian wrote Admonitions for Women about the proper cultivation of virtues for women?
Who are the primordial kami couple in Japanese mythology?
Izanagi and Izanami
The ideal found in both the Daodejing and the Zhuangzi is
simplicity and harmony with the Way
What does the Chinese term Dao mean?
In what famous text do we find the first line "The way that can be spoken of / Is not the constant way"?
"Guiding and stretching exercises" similar to modern-day taiji (Tai Chi) are mentioned in early texts of what tradition?
The bodhisattva known as Avalokiteshvara in India and Guanyin in China is called what in Japan?
Mengzi (Mencius) put emphasis on ________, the "flood-like vital force, energy or ether."
In what traditional Japanese festival are the spirits of the departed honored?
Confucians criticized Buddhist monasticism because
ascetic withdrawal from productive work was considered a shirking of responsibility and Abandonment of the duties of filial piety
During what period was there a renewal of Confucianism, often referred to as neo-Confucianism?
The exemplary Confucian ('superior person') is known as a
What second-oldest book in Japan combines origin myths with accounts of the reigns of early emperors?
The Nihon Shoki
Which of the following aspects or practices of Buddhism was NOT a criticized by Confucians and Daoists in the Six Dynasties period?
its veneration of texts
According to recent census information in South Korea, of those who claimed institutional affiliation, which two religions claim nearly all membership in that country?
Christianity and buddhism
In what period in Korea was there significant backlash against Buddhism?
What new idea did Buddhism introduce to China?
Who, along with Confucius himself, are considered China's three foremost philosophers of the Confucian tradition?
Mencius and Xunzi.
What is the 'silver rule', found in Confucian tradition?
"what you would not want for yourself, do not do to others"
Which influential Japanese Buddhist monk believed that believed that the only path to salvation, for the individual and for the nation, lay in the teachings of the Lotus Sutra?
The Kokugaku movement beginning in the late 1600s emphasized
The rejection of Confucianism and Buddhism in favour of "true" Japanese spiritual traditions
The word de, in the Confucian tradition, came to mean
moral power rooted in ethical behavior
How long is it believed to take an ancestor's spirit to fully leave the world in Japanese tradition?
During what period was political or state Confucianism established in China?
What best describes ancient Chinese attitudes and approaches to religious traditions?
The primary source of Confucius' sayings and teachings on how to govern in the period of Lesser Prosperity is known as the
Next to the Daodejing, what is considered the main source of philosophical Daoism?
The 'degenerate age', during which it was believed Buddhist dharma would decline and corruption and conflict would increase, was known in Japan as
During what dynasty in China did the Five Classics originate?
the Daoist practice known as qigong involves
breath exercises that help the movement of vital energy through the body
The earliest Korean proto state associated with its national foundation is called