Progressive Era

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Progressive era
1890 - 1920, Progressives tended to be women, middle class, and live in urban areas. Progressives sought to use government influence to solve societal problems.
Progressive goals
Less corruption, waste, inefficiency, and injustice.
More government, reform, scientific study, environmental, food and drug protection, voting reform, women's rights, workplace legislation
Progressives
A group of reformers who worked to solve problems caused by the rapid industrial urban growth of the late 1800s.
Muckraker
A group of investigative reporters who pointed out the abuses of big business and the corruption of urban politics; included Frank Norris (The Octopus) Ida Tarbell (A history of the standard oil company) Lincoln Steffens (the shame of the cities) and Upton Sinclair (The Jungle)
Jacob Riis
A Danish immigrant, he became a reporter who Pointed out the terrible conditions of the tenement houses of the big cities where immigrants lived during the late 1800s. He wrote How The Other Half Lives in 1890.
Upton Sinclair
Muckraker who shocked the nation when he published The Jungle, a novel that revealed gruesome details about the meat packing industry in Chicago. The book was fiction but based on the things he had seen.
Ida Tarbell
A leading muckraker and magazine editor, she exposed the corruption of the oil industry with her 1904 work A History of Standard Oil.
Lincoln Steffans
Muckraker who exposed political corruption and called for the "average businessman" to get involved in the democracy by voting
Suffrage
The right to vote
Susan B. Anthony
Key leader of woman suffrage movement, social reformer who campaigned for womens rights, the temperance, and was an abolitionist, helped form the National Woman Suffrage Assosiation
Elizabeth Cady Stanton
(1815-1902) A suffragette who, with Lucretia Mott, organized the first convention on women's rights, held in Seneca Falls, New York in 1848. Issued the Declaration of Sentiments which declared men and women to be equal and demanded the right to vote for women. Co-founded the National Women's Suffrage Association with Susan B. Anthony in 1869.
Women's Suffrage
The right of women to vote W/ 19th amendment in 1920
19th Amendment
Gave women the right to vote
Ellen Starr & Jane Addams
Started settlement movement in Chicago (Hull House).
Social reformers who aided the immigrant poor.
Developed community center (helped with education, Americanization, other social issues)
16th Amendment
Allows the federal government to collect income tax
17th Amendment
Passed in 1913, this amendment to the Constitution calls for the direct election of senators by the voters instead of their election by state legislatures.
18th Amendment
Prohibited the manufacture, sale, and distribution of alcoholic beverages
Food and Drug Act
1906 bill that created a federal Food and Drug Administration; example of consumer protection legislation of the progressive era, it was at least partially passed as a result of Upton Sinclair's novel The Jungle.
Meat Inspection Act
1906 - Laid down binding rules for sanitary meat packing and government inspection of meat products crossing state lines.
The Jungle
This 1906 work by Upton Sinclair pointed out the abuses of the meat packing industry. The book led to the passage of the 1906 Meat Inspection Act.
National Park Service
Agency that manages all national parks, national monuments and other conservationist and historical places.
U.S. Forest Service
An organization setup to protect the wildlife. 150 million acres of national forests were established under Roosevelt.
Conservationism
Promotion of policies to protect the land and manage development; Roosevelt restricted private development of millions of acres of government land and developed some of the national forests
Initiative
A procedure by which voters can propose a law or a constitutional amendment.
Referendum
A state-level method of direct legislation that gives voters a chance to approve or disapprove proposed legislation or a proposed constitutional amendment.
Recall
A procedure for submitting to popular vote the Removal of officials from office before the end of their term.
Direct Primary
A primary where voters directly select the candidates who will run for office.
Initiative, Recall, Referendum, Direct Primary
Progressive voting reforms.
Improved the democratic process.
Federal Reserve Act
A 1913 law that set up a system of federal banks and gave government the power to control the money supply
Federal Reserve System
The country's central banking system, which is responsible for the nation's monetary policy by regulating the supply of money and interest rates.
All banks required to keep % of deposits as reserves.
Trust Busting
(law) government activities seeking to dissolve corporate trusts and monopolies (especially under the United States antitrust laws)
Sherman Antitrust Act
First federal action against monopolies, it was signed into law by Harrison and was extensively used by Theodore Roosevelt for trust-busting. However, it was initially misused against labor unions.
Clayton Antitrust Act
1914 act designed to strengthen the Sherman Antitrust Act of 1890; certain activities previously committed by big businesses, such as not allowing unions in factories and not allowing strikes, were declared illegal.
Social Gospel Movement
A social reform movement that developed within religious institutions and sought to apply the teachings of Jesus directly to society.
Attended to the needs of the industrial poor.
Seneca Falls Convention
July, 1848 - Site of the first modern women's right convention. At the gathering, Elizabeth Cady Stanton read a Declaration of Sentiment listing the many discriminations against women, and adopted eleven resolutions, one of which called for women's suffrage.
Regulation
Efforts by government to alter the free operation of the market to achieve social goals such as protecting workers and the environment.
Graduated Income Tax
A tax on income in which the taxation rates grow progressively higher for those with higher income.
Natural Resources
Materials or substances such as minerals, forests, water, and fertile land that occur in nature and can be used for economic gain.
Teddy Roosevelt
26th President, from 1901-1909, passed two acts that purified meat, took over in 1901 when McKinley was shot, Went after trusts, formed the "Bull Moose Party", wanted to build the Panama canal, and make our Navy ( military stronger )
Woodrow Wilson
28th president of the United States, known for World War I leadership, created Federal Reserve, Federal Trade Commission, Clayton Antitrust Act, progressive income tax, lower tariffs, women's suffrage (reluctantly), Treaty of Versailles, sought 14 points post-war plan, League of Nations (but failed to win U.S. ratification), won Nobel Peace Prize.
William Taft
27th president of the U.S.; he angered progressives by moving cautiously toward reforms and by supporting the Payne-Aldrich Tariff; he lost Roosevelt's support and was defeated for a second term.
Bull Moose Party
Nickname for the new Progressive Party, which was formed to support Roosevelt in the election of 1912
1912 Election
4 candidates (Wilson, Roosevelt, Taft, Debs), Progressive Party (Roosevelt) took votes from Republican (Taft) allowing Democrats (Wilson) to win, big influence of Progressive ideas.
Reformer
A person who wants to improve society
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