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Lower Respiratory infections

-Less common but more serious than upper
-pathogen must overcome host defenses (mucociliary escalator, alveolar macrophages)
-Infections are more common in immunocompromised and chronic smokers (smoke paralyzes ciliary escalator)


Lower Respiratory infection: Caused by Streptococcus pneumonia and other bacteria
-Symptoms: Green mucus, shaking, chills, fever, chest pain
-Can be latent infection
-Treatment: Antibiotics
-Spikes in holidays

Mortality risk groups for Pneumonia:

older than 65, younger than 2, chronically ill, immune compromised (AIDS)

Latent infection

Infection that is not currently active but could reactivate at a later time or remain dormant. Can be spread in cases

Pertussis (whooping cough)

Lower Respiratory infection:
-Symptoms: Very serious cough, can cause brain damage and death in young.
-Prevention: inactive cell vaccine (1940s), DPT vaccine
*Vaccine gives 1 in 300,000 the disease


Lower Respiratory infection:
-Symptoms: Breakdown of lung tissue, blood in cough, fever, weight loss, and constipation
-Most killing bacteria worldwide (1.7million)
-Transmittance: Inhaled, phage, O2 blockage
-Mortality: 5% if treated, 50% if untreated
*anerobic organism
- Diagnosis: Turburerlin or mantoux test
-Treatment: 6 month course of antibiotics
-Prevention: Vaccine (not used in US)


Multi-drug resistant tuberculosis: people dont use all antibiotics and resistant strains are allowed to grow, can lead to extremely drug resistant strain (XDR-TB)

Pneumonia symptoms

Green mucus, shaking, chills, fever, chest pain

Pertussis (whooping cough) symptoms

Very serious cough, can cause brain damage and death in young.

Tuberculosis symptoms

Breakdown of lung tissue, blood in cough, fever, weight loss, and constipation

Most killing bacteria worldwide



an establishment for the care and treatment especially of the people recovering from illness or having a disease likely to last a long time
*Western areas for people with TB

legionnaires disease

Lower Respiratory infection:
-Symptoms: Fever, cough, fatigue, pneumonia
*American Legions conference in 1976 (Air conditioning to blame)
-No human to human transfer, rather by infected water (possibly evaporated form)
-More susceptible: Older; heavy drinkers and smokers

Q fever

Lower Respiratory infection:
-Caused by: Coxiella burnetii
-Symptoms: Very high fever, flu like symptoms
-Found in animal fluids
-Vaccines available

What lower respiratory infection is not present in New Zealand?

Q fever

Who is most likely to get Q fever?

Those that work with animals

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